Importance-Performance Analysis Sustainable Tourism Based on environmental, social and economic aspect

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Yazd University

2 M.S. of Business management, Yazd University


The negative aspects of development regardless of its sustainability, today a new conception in its various dimensions is discussed. One of the concepts of sustainable tourism.
The present study examines the impact of environmental, social and factors on sustainable tourism. In this respect, the theoretical background of the research, environmental and social components of tourism were identified and analyzed. This study was descriptive in nature and is an applied research. Survey and questionnaire has been used to collect data while Yazd tourists and tourism experts were the sample population of this study. Over this research, statistical analyses software and Importance-Performance Analysis matrix have been employed to analyze data. The result of research shows that there is a slight differentiate between tourist and tourism expert view about social factors, while environmental factors were assessed more important from the perspective of experts


شیعه، اسماعیل؛ علی‌پور اشلیکی، سجاد (1389). «تحلیل عوامل کیفیت‌بخش محیط گردشگری ساحلی با توجه به معیارهای گردشگری پایدار (مطالعه موردی: شواحل شهر رامسر)»، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، ش 17،ص 155ـ167.
ضرابی، اصغر؛ اسلامی پریخانی، صدیف (1390). «سنجش تاثیرات اقتصادی، اجتماعی-فرهنگی و زیست‌محیطی توسعه گردشگری (مطالعه موردی شهرستان مشکین شهر)»، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، ش 75، ص 25ـ37.
Allen, L. R., Long, P. T., Perdue, R. R., & Kieselbach, S. (1988). The impact of tourism development on residents’ perceptions of community life. Journal of Travel Research, 27(1), 16-21
Almanza, B.A., Jaffe, W., &Lin, L. (1994). Use of the service attribute matrix to measure consumer satisfaction. Hospitality Research Journal, 17 (2), 63-75.
Altinay M., Hussain K., (2005). Sustainable Tourism Development: A Case Study of North Cyprus, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 17(3). 272 – 280.
Berno, T., & Bricker, K., (2001). Sustainable tourism development: the long road from theory to practice. International Journal of Economic Development, 3(3), 1–18.
Bramwell, B., & Lane, B. (1993). Interpretation and sustainable tourism: The potential and pitfalls. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(2), 71-80.
Bramwell, B., & Lane, B., (1993). Sustainable tourism: an evolving global approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 1–5.
Brougham, J. E., & Butler, R. W. (1981). A segmentation analysis of residents’ attitudes to the social impact of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 8(4), 569-590.
Buckley, R. (2012). Sustainable Tourism: Research and Reality. Annals of Tourism Research, 39, Number 2, 528-546.
Butler, R. (1998). Sustainable tourism—looking backwards in order to progress? In: M. Hall, & A. Lew (Eds.), Sustainable Tourism—A Geographical Perspective. Essex: Addison Wesley Longman.
Butler, R.(1999). Sustainable tourism: a state of the art review. Tourism Geographies, 1(1), 7–25.
Caber, M., Albayrak,T., & Matzler,K. (2012). Classification  of the destination attributes in the content of competitiveness (by revised importance-performance analysis). Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(1), 43–56.
Cater, E. (1987). Tourism in the least developed countries. Annals of Tourism Research, 14(2), 202-226.
Chu, R., & Choi,T. (2000). An importance-performance analysis of hotel selectionfactors in the Hong Kong hotel industry: a comparison of business and leisure travelers. Tourism Management, 21, 363–377.
Clarke, J. (1997). A framework of approaches to sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(3), 224-233.
Clarke, J.(1997). A framework of approaches to sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(3), 224–233.
Cohen, E. (1978). The impact of tourism on the physical environment. Annals of Tourism Research, 5(2), 215-237.
Driml, S., & Common, M. (1996). Ecological economics criteria for sustainable tourism: Application to the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics World Heritage Areas, Australia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 4(1), 3-16.
Dolnicar, S. Leisch, F. (2008), Selective Marketing for Environmentally Sustainable Tourism, Tourism Management, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 672-680.
Eccles G., Casta J., 1996, Perspectives on tourism development, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Volume 8, Number 7, pp. 44-51.
Erkus-Ozturk, H., & Eraydın, A. (2010). Environmental governance for sustainable tourism development: Collaborative networks and organization building in the Antalya tourism region. Tourism Management, 31(1), 113–124.
Evans, M.R., &Chon, K.S. (1989). Formulating and evaluating tourism policy using importance-performance analysis. Hospitality Education and Research Journal, 3, 203-213.
Farrell, B., & McLellan, R. (1987). Tourism and physical environment research. Annals of Tourism Research, 14(1), 1-16.
Farrelly, T. A. (2011). Indigenous and democratic decision-making: Issues from community-based ecotourism in the Bouma National Heritage Park, Fiji. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(7), 817-835.
Font Xavier and Ahjem Tor E., (1999). Searching for a Balance in Tourism Development Strategies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Volume: 11; Issue: 2/3,. 73-77.
Garrod, B., & Fyall, A. (1998). Beyond the rhetoric of sustainable tourism? Tourism Management, 19(3), 199-212.
Getz, D., & Timur, S. (2005). Stakeholder involvement in sustainable tourism: balancing the voices. In: W.F. Theobald (Ed.), Global Tourism (3rd Ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Butterworth–Heinemann.
Griffin, T., & Edwards, D. (2012). Importance-performance analysis as a diagnostic tool for urban destination managers. Anatolia—An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 23(1), 32–48.
Hall, C. M., & Butler, R. W. (1995). In search for common ground: Reflections on sustainability, complexity and process in the tourism system. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3(2), 99-105.
Harris, R., Griffin, T., & Williams, P. (2003). Sustainable Tourism—A Global Perspective. Burlington: Elsevier.
Hind, D., & Mitchell, J. (2004). Sustainable tourism in the English Lake District. Sunderland: Business Education Publishers.
Hoyer, K. (2000). Sustainable tourism or sustainable mobility? The Norwegian case. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(2), 147-160.
Hughes, G. (1995). The cultural construction of sustainable tourism. Tourism Management, 16(1), 49-59.
Hunter, C. (1995).On the need tore conceptualizes sustainable tourism development. Journal of sustainable tourism, 3(3), 155–165.
Hunter, C. (1996). Key concepts for tourism and the environment. In: C. Hunter & H. Green (Eds.), Tourism and the environment. A Sustainable Relationship. London: Rout ledge.
Hunter, C. (1997). Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4), 850–867.
Hunter, C. (2002).Aspects of the sustainable tourism debate from a natural resources perspective. In: R. Harris, T. Griffin, & P. Williams (Eds.), Sustainable Tourism: A global perspective. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Kazemi, M., 2007, Tourism Management, Second Edition, and Tehran, Published by: Samt.
Liu, J. C., & Var, T. (1986). Resident attitudes toward tourism impacts in Hawaii. Annals of Tourism Research, 13(2), 193-214.
Liu, Z. (2003). Sustainable tourism development: a critique. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(6), 459–475. Sharpley, R., & Telfer, D. (2002). Tourism and development—concepts and issues. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Martilla, J., & James, J. (1977). Importance–performanceanalysis. Journal of Marketing, 41(1), 77–79.
May, V. (1991). Tourism, environment and development - Values, sustainability and stewardship. Tourism Management, 12(2), 112-124.
Middleton, V. (1997). Sustainable tourism: a marketing perspective. In: M.J. Stabler (Ed.), Tourism and Sustainability—principles to practice. New York: CAB International.
Middleton, V., & Clarke, J. (2001). Marketing in travel and tourism. Oxford: Butterworth–Heinemann.
Muller, H. (1994).The thorny path to sustainable development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2(3), 131–136. Oh, H. (2001).Revisiting importance–performance analysis. Tourism Management, 22, 617–627.
Nouri, S.H., Noroozi, Avarghani A., 2007, Evaluation of Environment for Tourism Development in Villages Chgakhur, journal of Literature and Humanities Science Faculty, Isfahan University, Year 22, Number 1.
Rita P., 2000, Tourism in the European Union, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Volume: 12, Issue: 7, pp.: 434-436.
Saarinen, J. (2006).Traditions of sustainability in tourism studies. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4), 1121–1140.
Sharpley, R. (2000).Tourism and sustainable development: exploring the theoretical divide. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(1), 1–19.
Smith, V. (1977). Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Sörensson, A., & von Friedrichs, Y. 2013. An importance–performance analysis of sustainable tourism: A .comparison between international and national tourists. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2, 14-21
Swarbrooke, J. (2001). Distribution channels: ethics and sustainability. In: D. Buhalis, & E. Laws (Eds.), Tourism Distribution Channels Practice, Issues and Transformations. London: Continuum.
Taplin, R. (2012).Competitive importance–performance analysis of an Australian wildlife park. Tourism Management, 33, 29-37.
Tarrant, M., & Smith, E. (2002). The use of a modified importance-performance framework to examine visitor satisfaction with attributes of outdoor recreation settings. Managing Leisure, 7, 69–82.
Tosun, C, Tamika, P., Timothy, D., & Fyall, A. (2007). Tourist shopping experiences and satisfaction. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9, 87–102.
Turner, L., & Ash, J. (1975). The golden hordes: International tourism and the pleasure periphery. London: Constable
Wahab, S., &Pigram, J. (1997). Tourism, development and growth—the challenge of sustainability. London: Routledge.
Weaver, D. (2012). Organic, incremental and induced paths to sustainable mass tourism convergence. Tourism Management, 33, 1030–1037.
Young, G. (1973). Tourism - Blessing or blight?. London: Penguin.