Document Type : Research Article
M.S, Environmental planning and management
PhD, Geography and Urban Planning, Assistant Professor, Department of Urban Planning and Geography, University of Tabriz, Aras Pardis
Tourism activity if desired may be designed to improve the conservation and management of natural indigenous communities and local economic benefits in addition. Otherwise if the development of policies and programs which are consistent with environmental attitudes and emphasis on sustainable development, it will certainly cause negative effects on the environment. This article tends to evaluate the tourism activities in Bandar-e- Anzali with SWOT method and then using the combination of ANP and SWOT to provide optimum strategies for sustainable tourism in the city of Bandar-e- Anzali pay. This study is an applied descriptive and analytical. The data for analysis were obtained from library sources and surveys. The results show that the combination of ANP and SWOT fully participatory planning process in accordance with the will of the people and local communities. The result of the SWOT matrix analysis shows that the best strategy for sustainable development of tourism in the city of Bandar-e- Anzali is the Invasive strategy.
Evaluation of tourism industry, city of Bandar-e- Anzali, ANP, SWOT, Sustainable Tourism
Today the aim of tourism industry is beyond the economical, political and recreational goals. These days the tourism is a mean for better understanding of the world, nation’s friendship, secure economy and the better use of environment and nature. The tourism industry which planned in a suitable manner could preserve nature for the local community and economy, in contrast the tourism industry was unplanned the tourism industry may have negative effects on both nature and also society. The tourism industry in Iran could cause occupation's for different groups not only for local housing but also for hand crofts, transportation and others, this fact have a huge incomes for the Iranian economy. The tourism industry and the natural environment have a close relationship with each other. The new paradigm of the tourism industry introduced with regard to the whole nature and environment, i.e. the gestalt. The sustainable tourism development is a new paradigm for tourism industry which introduce in the mid 1980. This article want to evaluate the impacts tourism industry in the Bandar-e- Anzali and present the new strategies based on sustainable development for tourism planning in this region, hence this research seek to answer these questions:
What is the environmental impact of tourism in the city of Bandar-e-Anzali?
What strategies are suitable for the sustainable development of tourism in the city of Bandar-e-Anzali?
Thus this research have many goals, the main goals which the research want to reach them are:
provide a model for sustainable development of tourism city of Anzali
Identifying the affective factors and areas of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the sustainable development of tourism city of Bandar-e-Anzali.
Plan for improving tourism facilities based on the views of local people, experts, officials and tourists
Provide the optimal solution for the management of tourism in the region and choose an important strategy.
2. The Methodology
This research is an applicable research and uses the analytical descriptive method for the analyses of the research data and information. The necessary data gathered from the field work and questioners and the others gathered from the Iranian Center for Static or tourism organization. The sample numbers estimated via Cochran model, and the number of samples was about 200 people. The information of questionnaires analyzed in Excel and SPSS. After that the SWOT matrix formed for the further analysis, the element of matrix priority synthesized with ANP model. Finally the strategies for the tourism sustainable development introduced.
3. The study Area
The city of Bandar-e-Anzali is in the Gilan province, the boundary of the city in the North limited to the Caspian Sea, in the west its neighborhood county is the Rezvanshar. The county area is about 304/78 km2. The population of the county is about 133134. The urbanization rate in the county is about 83/11 percent.
4. Data and analysis:
The first part of the study is the environmental impact evaluation via check list method, in this stage research showed that the tourism industry in the region has different effects on nature and social and economical environment. The second stage of the research is the identifying SWOT matrix’s element, i.e. the S (Strong), W (weak), O (opportunity) and the T (thread). This stage completed with field work and questionnaires. Each matrix contains different elements. For the priority of the elements here we used the ANP model. This model handled in the super decision software, after the formation of Super matrix the weighted super matrix gained and finally the weights resulted. In the SWOT matrix the element of W1 has highest priority. Based on the results the invaded strategy could be appropriate for the research goal.
This research evaluate the environmental effects of tourism industry in the Bandar Anzali via check list method, the study showed that the tourism have a varied effects on natural , social and economical environmental. For the presentation of the appropriate strategies based on sustainable development paradigm, the SWOT matrix formed. The element of the matrix extracted from the field work and the questionnaires. The ANP models used for prioritize of the SWOT’s matrix. The results showed that the most appropriate strategy for the tourism industry in the region is the strategies’ with invaded goal.
These strategies are
The application of conservation policies and strategies and the use of natural and cultural heritage for presentation of valuable tourism elements in the county with aid of advertising.
Attraction of investment and financial resource for activation of the job opportunities in the field of tourism
the giving of services for the passing tourists
the attraction of tourist by giving high services with low costs from the high populated centers of Tehran and Karaj
the holding of combined tour with the neighbor regions
the identification of art and handy craft
the use of port and jetty facilities for attraction of the tourists