The Typology of Hotels' Services For Travel Agencies, Case Study: The Five-Star Hotels in Mashhad

Document Type : Research Article


1 MeAssistant Professor, Allameh Tabatabai University ,Department of Tourism Management

2 Associate Professor, Allameh Tabatabai University ,Department of Tourism Management

3 Master of Tourism Management, Allameh Tabatabai University


Accommodations and hotels are among the most important components of any tourist attraction. Hotels' managers must review concepts of their marketing strategies. This necessitates the analysis of the characteristics which are considered by their customers, including business intermediaries (specially, travel agencies or tour operators) or end users (tourists), to distinguish a hotel's brand from others. Then they can define their product. Based on the literature and interviews with some members of the population and some academic experts, research's conceptual model was developed. This paper is aimed to offer a typology for services of Five-star hotels in Mashhad for travel agencies' managers, their most important industrial customers. This research is an applied research and in terms of data collecting, it is a descriptive survey. All the travel agencies' managers in Tehran, which directly offer travel packages to Mashhad with staying in Five-star hotels, are the population of this survey. Here, manager means, CEO, B technical manager, internal manager & tour manager. Size of the sample was estimated 218 by Cochran's formula. To gain the objectives of the research, after a review of the past researches and developing the conceptual model, research's questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire contained 31 main questions about the importance the identified service attributes. The questionnaire was distributed among travel agencies' managers in Tehran. The collected data was analyzed by applying confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a software, named Lisrel. According to the results, different kinds of hotels’ services for travel agencies can be categorized respectively as "core product", "facilitating services" and "enhancing services". Using SPSS, we found out that the involvement of females is more than males. Most of the respondents were young, high educated, but in irrelevant fields of studies. The percentage of the questionnaires which were fulfilled by tour managers were more than other ones. It is wonderful that more than half of the respondents had work experience less than five years. On the other hand, respectively, hotels' web site, visit the hotels, and the attitudes of the costumers of the agents, were the most common tools to get information about the hotels under study.



    1. بیات، شیما (1390). «بررسی مقایسه‏ای جایگاه برندهای بین‏المللی لوازم صوتی و تصویری فعال در بازار ایران از دیدگاه مشتریان ساکن شهر تهران با استفاده از تکنیک نقشة ادراکی»، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران، استاد راهنما: اصغر مشبکی.
    2. دهدشتی شاهرخ، زهره؛ فیاضی، مرتضی (1390). مدیریت بازاریابی در صنعت گردشگری، ویرایش اول، تهران: مهکامه.
    3. روستا، احمد؛ ونوس، داور؛ ابراهیمی، عبدالمجید (1387). مدیریت بازاریابی، تهران: سمت، چ 12.
    4. قاضی‏زاده، مصطفی؛ سلیمانی بشلی، علی (1388). «بازاریابی و موضع‏یابی مؤثر در نظام بانکی ایران»، بانک و اقتصاد، ش 105، ص 18ـ25.
    5. کاتلر، فیلیپ؛ آرمسترانگ، گری (1390). اصول بازاریابی، ترجمة بهمن فروزنده، اصفهان: نشر آموخته، چ 13.
    6. کاتلر، فیلیپ؛ فورچ، والدرمار (1389). مدیریت برند در بازاریابی صنعتی ـ تجاری، ترجمة محمد حقیقی، سید علی موسوی، و فراز صادق‏وزیری، تهران: انتشارات نگاه دانش.
    7. لاولاک، کریستوفر؛ و رایت، لارن (1382). اصول بازاریابی خدمات، ترجمة ابوالفضل تاج‏زاده نمین، تهران: سمت.
    8. لومسدون، لس (1380). بازاریابی گردشگری، ترجمة محمدابراهیم گوهریان، تهران: دفتر پژوهش‏های فرهنگی.
    9. مرکز آمار ایران (1390). نتایج آمارگیری از گردشگران ملی.
    10. مؤمنی، مصطفی؛ صرافی، مظفر؛ قاسمی خوازنی، محمد (1387). «ساختار و کارکرد گردشگری مذهبی ـ فرهنگی و ضرورت مدیریت یکپارچه در کلان‌شهر مشهد»، جغرافیا و توسعه، ش 11، بهار و تابستان، ص 13ـ38.
    11. Atkinson, A., 1988, Answering the eternal question: What does customer want? Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 12-14.
    12. Barsky, J. D. and Labagh, R, 1992, A strategy for customer satisfaction, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 32-40.
    13. Brooksbank, R., 1994, The anatomy of marketing positioning strategy, Marketing Intellegence and Planning, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 10-14.
    14. Chu, R. K. S., and Choi, T., 2000, An importance-performance analysis of hotel selection factors in the Hong Kong hotel industry: a comparison of business and leisure travelers, Tourism Management, Vol. 21, pp. 363-377.
    15. Dev, C. S., Morgan, M. S., and Shoemaker, S., 1995 December, A positioning analysis of hotel brands based on travel manager perceptions, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, pp. 48-55.
    16. Dibb, S., and Simkin, L. 1993, The strength of branding and positioning in services, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 25-35.
    17. Dubé, L., and Renaghan, L. M., 2000 February, Marketing your hotel to and through intermediaries, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, pp. 73-83.
    18. Gensch, D. H., and Javalgi, R. G., 1988, Issues and advances in product positioning models in marketing research, Mathl Comput. Modelling, Vol. 10, No. 12, pp. 929-949.
    19. Ibrahim, E. E., and Gill, J., 2005, A positioning strategy for a tourist destination, based on analysis of customers’ perceptions and satisfaction, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 172-188.
    20. Karadeniz, M., 2009, Product positioning strategy in marketing management, Journal of Naval Science and Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 98-110.
    21. Knutson, B. J., 1988 May, Frequent travelers: making them happy and bringing them back, The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, pp. 83-87.
    22. Lewis, R. C., 1982, Positioning analysis for hospitality firms, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 115-118.
    23. Petcu, M., and David-Sobolevschi, L., 2009, Matrix approach of strategic positioning in the hospitality industry, Economic-Fnancial Analysis and Property Valuation: Challenges into the Actual Global Context (Scientific Symposium), Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies Accounting and Information System Faculty Romanian Society of Economic and Financial Analysis (RSEFA), May 29-31.
    24. Saleh, F., and Ryan, C., 1992, Clients perceptions of hotels: a multi-attribute approach, Tourism Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 163-168.
    25. Schulz, C., 1194 April, Hotels and travel agents: the new partnership, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. pp. 45-50.
    26. Wilensky, L. and Buttle, F., 1988, A multivariate analysis of hotel benefit bundles and choice trade-offs, Hospitality Management, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 29-41.