Evaluation of spatial distribution of tourism primary infrastructures with emphasis on mobility of historical tourism axis within the historical-cultural context of Urmia city

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 M. A of Urban Planning, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Tourism is an important phenomenon of the twentieth century, that operates within the framework of specific spatial patterns. One of these spatial patterns is the urban tourism. Quality of the spatial distribution of tourism infrastructure in the city strengthens the tourist mobility in this spatial pattern. As such, tourism mobility plays a key role in predicting the potential route of tourist movements, destination management and design, travel planning and attraction marketing. So far, several studies have been conducted on spatial analysis of tourist attractions, infrastructures and distribution of services in urban areas. The disproportionate distribution of infrastructure and ranking of tourism services are among the fundamental and obvious shortcomings that tangible in many tourism industry development studies and plans in our country. Therefore, in the present study, according to the principles of strengthening the capacity of accommodation facilities, tourism infrastructures and relatively regular spatial distribution of natural and historical-cultural elements, the methods of strengthening tourism mobility and tourist presence in the city are explained, Because analysis of the distribution, proper location of the infrastructures in this part of the cities is one of the basic decisions in the process of urban settlements development planning. Although Urmia city is rich in terms of antiquity, the multiplicity of historical monuments and cultural heritage, it still faces problems such as the concentration of service-tourism units and the lack of a motile and historical tourism axis. It should also be noted that, despite of Urmia’s long history due to various factors throughout history, has preserved relatively few monuments. However, these artifacts are valuable and require physical and functional protection to preserve the city's historical identity, and at the same time can play an important role in attracting tourists to this cultural, historical and religious city. Therefore, according to the purpose of this research, the distribution of different tourism infrastructures in this location had a high priority. On the other hand, considering that no research has been done yet in terms of the evaluation of tourism infrastructure based on the mobility of tourists in Urmia; so, addressing this issue may reveal new aspects of Urmia tourism and become helpful for tourism development of the city.

the research method is descriptive-analytical according to the nature of the subject and the objectives and in order to collect data, field and library method were used. At first, descriptive method, geographical information system and ARCGIS software are used to distribute the spatial structure of tourism infrastructure for more mobility of tourists that all of these factors can lead to strengthen the mobility of tourists in the ancient and valuable texture of Urmia. Factors, indicators, criteria and other analysis conditions of tourism infrastructures as well as maps related to effective human factors (accessibility, shopping centers, souvenir centers, hotels, restaurants, historical –commercial-service centers of the old bazaar of Urmia and proximity to historical monuments), has been used in the form of spatial and non-spatial information during the process of data collecting. After data collecting and identifying the main factors and indicators affecting tourism infrastructure, the FAHP model is applied to the criteria and the results of the model are analyzed by ARCGIS software and then the sites have been prioritized by combining the study area maps. Finally, the field parts detailed on the relevant sites.

Results and discussion
Generally, the process is done in three stages. At the first step, according to the criteria specified for the analysis of tourism infrastructures in the region no.4 (old texture) of Urmia city, each of the criteria and sub-criteria has been evaluated and weighted. At the second step, the final weight is applied to the criteria and combined with the fuzzy layers. Since each layer of information is not of the equal value and the extent effectiveness of the layers on the final response is not the same, the evaluation step must be performed before the information integration, which is referred as the weighting of the information. Finally, the results of the model and the spatial information collected by the ARCGIS software have been analyzed and then by combining maps of the study area, different sites were prioritized, which eventually led to the segmentation of the relevant sites and in the following, existing zoning parts have been obtained in two quite appropriate and appropriate classes; within the urban historical texture of Urmia. The quantitative indicators represent proportional spatial distribution of tourism infrastructures (hotels, restaurants, shopping centers and souvenir shops, and access hierarchy) at the core of the city's historical texture, as tourism infrastructures have been concentrated within the Imam Street area, which in fact is the main center of historical tourism. With the increase of the distance from the historical-tourism axis of Imam Street, the disproportionate distribution of spatial structure has become more unbalanced and the location of the existing infrastructures in the field of optimal location in this axis. In such a way that the more appropriate location of the infrastructure than other areas of the city has led to their compatibility with the adjacent landings located on the main axis of Imam Street, which creates a continuous axis around the street.

The results show that despite the standardization of infrastructure zoning in the core of the historical context of the city (the area of Imam Street, which is actually the main center and historical tourism axis), this area does not have a desirable tourism flourish. In addition, the results indicate that tourism development is a multifaceted subject and several other factors, regardless of the components of the study, are effective in the prosperity of tourism. The notable point in this study is the emphasize on the importance of recognizing the primary and secondary elements of tourism in relation to its mobility with the focus on historical tourism. Also it can be concluded from the available information that historical sites, shopping malls and hotels have had the greatest impact on the realization of tourist mobility in this area.


1)      حسینی، علی و زیتونی، حسین (1396) مکان‌یابی بهینه مجتمع‌های تجاری با استفاده از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی در محیط سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (مورد: مجتمع تجاری شهر رامسر)، فصلنامه مطالعات ساختار و کارکرد شهری، سال 4، شماره 13، صص. 43-24.
2)      حسنوند، سمیه و خدا پناه، مسعود (1393) تأثیر گردشگری بر رشد اقتصادی در کشورهای درحال‌توسعه: دو رویکرد پانل ایستا و پانل پویا، فصلنامه سیاست‌های راهبردی و کلان، سال 2، شماره 6، صص. 102-87.
3)      شکویی، حسین (1385) دیدگاه‌های نو در جغرافیای شهری، جلد دوم، تهران: انتشارات سمت.
4)      شکویی، حسین و موحد، علی (1381) شناخت الگوی فضای توریستی شهر اصفهان با استفاده از سیستم GIS، دوره 6، شماره 4، صص. 94-71.
5)      زنگ‌آبادی، علی و بختیاری، نرگس (1390) بررسی پراکنش خدمات گردشگری محور تاریخی شهر اصفهان، اولین همایش بین‌المللی مدیریت و گردش پایدار، دانشگاه آزاد تهران.
6)      شهاب زاده، مرجان؛ پیوسته­گر، یعقوب؛ حیدری، علی‌اکبر (1395) تحلیل توزیع فضایی مراکز تجاری نوین شهری و مکان‌یابی بهینه آن‌ها با استفاده از GIS و AHP (مورد پژوهی: کلان‌شهر شیراز)، فصلنامه برنامه‌ریزی منطقه‌ای، سال 6، شماره پیاپی 23، صص. 99-112.
7)      طهماسبی پاشا، جمعلی و روفیا، مجیدی (۱۳۸۴) چشم‌انداز گردشگری سواحل جنوبی دریای خزر و آثار آن بر توسعه شهرها و روستاهای منطقه (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان تنکابن)، مجموعه مقالات اولین همایش سراسری نقش صنعت گردشگری در توسعه استان مازندران. تهران، ناشر رنسانس.
8)      عباس زاده، مظفر؛ محمد مرادی، اصغر؛ سلطان احمدی، الناز (1394) نقش ارزش‌های میراث معماری و شهری در توسعه گردشگری فرهنگی (نمونه موردی: بافت تاریخی ارومیه)، فصلنامه مطالعات شهری، بهار و تابستان 1394، دوره 4، شماره 14، صص. 90-77.
9)      عیسوی، وحید؛ کرمی، جلال؛ علی محمدی، عباس؛ نیک نژاد سیدعلی (1391) مقایسه دو روش تصمیم‌گیری AHP و Fuzzy-AHP در مکان‌یابی اولیه سدهای زیرزمینی در منطقه طالقان، نشریه علوم زمین، دوره 22, شماره 85، صص. 34-27.
10)   غفاری گیلانده، عطا؛ کاملی­فر، زهرا؛ یزدانی، محمدحسن (1393) اولویت‌بندی تناسب اراضی در فرآیند مکان گزینی فضای سبز شهری با استفاده از فنون تحلیل چند معیاری مطالعه موردی: منطقه یک شهرداری تبریز، نشریه تحقیقات کاربردی علوم جغرافیایی، سال 14، شماره 32، صص. 270-251.
11)   11-قاسمی، فروغ؛ زیاری، کرامت الله؛ صادقی، محمد (1393) تحلیل کیفی و مکانی مراکز اقامتی شهر شیراز جهت توسعه گردشگری، جغرافیا و آمایش منطقه‌ای، دوره4، شماره 11، صص.11-1.
12)   قربانی، رسول؛ پروین، نادر؛ قیصریان، جمال (1392) مکان‌یابی مراکز تجاری نوین شهری در نواحی شهری با استفاده از تحلیل سلسله‌مراتب AHP (نمونه موردی، نواحی سه‌گانه شهر سقز)، نشریه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی، سال 17، شماره 45، صص. 181-136.
13)   محمدی جمال؛ کیومرثی حسین؛ نصیری، یوسف (1392) مکان‌یابی بهینه پارکینگ‌های شهری با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) و فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (مطالعه موردی: بخش مرکزی شهر آباده)، نشریه فضای جغرافیایی, دوره 13، شماره 44، صص. 109-91.
14)   مطالعات راهبردی بافت فرسوده ارومیه، استان آذربایجان غربی (1390) آرشیو اطلاعات.
15)   موحد، علی (1386) گردشگری شهری، انتشارات سمت، تهران، ص 35.
16)   موحد، علی (1387) توزیع فضای مراکز اقامتی در شهر تاریخی اصفهان، پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی انسانی، دوره 65، شماره 65، صص. 116- 105.
17)   موسی‌وند، جعفر و ساسان‌پور، جعفر (1390) ارزیابی نقش زیرساخت‌های شهری جهت تعیین قطب گردشگری با استفاده از مدل‌های TOPSIS و AHP در استان مازندران) ، فصلنامه فضای گردشگری، سال 1، شماره 1، صص. 82-63.
18)   مؤسسه استاندارد و تحقیقات صنعتی ایران (1385) آیین کار ضوابط مکان‌یابی ایستگاه‌های اتوبوس شهری، چاپ اول.
19)   وارثی، حمیدرضا و رضایی، میثم (1391) تحلیل فضایی و مکان‌یابی مراکز اقامتگاهی در شهرهای تاریخی مطالعه موردی: هتل‌های شهر شیراز، آمایش محیط, دوره ، شماره 19، صص. 26-1.
20)   وارثی، حمیدرضا؛ تقوایی، مسعود؛ شاهیوند، احمد (1390) تحلیلی بر وضعیت زیرساخت‌های گردشگری در شهر اصفهان، اصفهان، مجله جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی محیطی، سال 22، دوره 22، شماره پیاپی 44، شمار 4، صص. 112-91.
21)   وارثی حمیدرضا؛ شیران، غلامرضا؛ عزیزی حسنوند، حدیث (1393) مکان‌یابی ایستگاه‌های اتوبوس با مدل ANP و منطق فازی در GIS (نمونه موردی: شهر خرم‌آباد)، پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دوره 6، شماره 23، صص. 76-55.
22) Alan Lew, Bob McKerche. (2006) Modeling Tourist Movements: A Local Destination Analysis, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.33, No.2, pp.403-423.
23)  Amir, S. & Mohamed Osman, M. & Bachok, S. & Ibrahim, M. (2015) sustaining local community economy through tourism: Melaka UNESCO world heritage city, Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol.28, pp.443-452.
24)  Babawale Akin, Adeyemi. (2013) Mapping the Locational Pattern of Hotels in Akure, Ondo State, IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Vol.14, No.3, pp. 95-99.
25)  Bagheri, M. & Shojaei, P. & Tayebi Khorami, M. (2018) A comparative survey of the condition of tourism infrastructure in Iranian provinces using VIKOR and TOPSIS, Decision Science Letters, Vol.7, No.1, pp.87-102.
26)  Bahaire, T. & Elliott-White, M. (1999) The application of geographical information systems (GIS) in sustainable tourism planning: A review, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol.7, No.2, pp.159-174.
27)  Bulai, M. & Iaţu, C. (2013) Accesibilitate şi turism: studiu de caz-regiunea Moldovei, Publisher: Editura Universităţii Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din Iași, România.
28)  Charles Chancellor, H. (2012) Applying travel pattern data to destination development and marketing decisions, Tourism Planning & Development, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 321–332.
29)  Chang, Jieh-Ren. & Chang, Betty. (2015) The Development of a Tourism Attraction Model by Using Fuzzy Theory, Mathematical Problems in Engineering journal, Vol.2015, pp.1-10.
30)  Chua, A. & Servillo, L. & Marcheggiani, E. & Moere, A. V. (2016) Mapping cilento: Using geotagged social media data to characterize tourist flows in southern Italy, Tourism Management, Vol.57, pp.295–310.
31)  Cohen, S.A. & Higham, J.E. & Peeters, P. & Gössling, S. (2014) Why tourism mobility behaviours must change, Understanding and governing sustainable tourism mobility: Psychological and behavioural approaches, Routledge, London
32) Marzouq, Ayed Al qeed.&  Ibrahim, Bazazo. & Abdelbaset, Hasoneh. (2010) Using Geographic Information System to Visualize Travel Patterns and Market Potentials of Petra City in Jordan, International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol.2, No.2, pp.144-159.
33)  D’Mello, Carmelita. & Kamat, Kaustubh. & Weiermair, Klaus & Scaglione, Miriam. (2016) Tourists Assessment of infrastructure Availability in GOA for Promoting Tourism: a Gap analysis, 65th AIEST Conference on “Advances in Tourism Research: Perspectives of Actors, Institutions, and Systems, Lijiang, Peoples Republic of China, Vol. 6, PP.42-57.
34)  Ebrahimzadeh, Issa. & Daraei, Marziye. (2014) Analysis of tourism facilities’ distribution and its optimization based upon Ashworth-Tunbridge and Getz Models using GIS; case study: Semnan in historical silk route, Humanities and Social Sciences journal, Vol.2, No.3, pp.47-56.
35)  Chang, Jieh-Ren. & Chang, Betty. (2015) The Development of a Tourism Attraction Model by Using Fuzzy Theory, Mathematical Problems in Engineering journal, Vol.2, pp.1-10.
36)  Fennell, D. A. (1996) A tourist space-time budget in the Shetland Islands. Annals ofTourism Research, Vol.23, No.4, pp.81 l-829.
37)  Flogenfeldt, T. (1999) Traveler Geographic Origin and Market Segmentation: The multi trips destination case. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol.8, No.1, pp.111-118.
38)  Iatu, C. & Bulai, M. (2011) New approach in evaluating tourism attractiveness in the region of Moldavia (Romania). International Journal of Energy and Environment, Vol.5, No.2, pp.165–174.
39)  Jafari, Jafar. & Xiao, Honggen. (2016) Encyclopedia of Tourism, Publisher: Springer International Publishing.
40)   Jianhong, (Cecilia) Xia. & Panlop, Zeephongsekul. & David, Packer. (2010) Spatial and temporal modelling of tourist movements usingSemi-Markov processes, Tourism Management, Vol.32, No.4, pp.844-851.
41)  Kim, J.-H. & Ritchie, J. R. B. & McCormick, B. (2010) Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences, Journal of Travel Research, Vol.51, No.1, pp.12-25.
42)  Li, X. & Meng, F. & Uysal, M. (2008) Spatial pattern of tourist flows among the asia-pacific countries: An examination over a decade, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol.13, No.3, pp.229–243.
43)  Mannell, R. C. & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1987) Psychological nature of leisure and tourism experience, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.14, pp. 314-331.
44)  Morgan, M. & Lugosi, P. & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2010) The tourism and leisure experience: Consumer and managerial perspectives. Bristol: Channel View Publications.
45)  Nancy, Odendaa, (2011) Planning education in the African urban century, School of Architecture, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa, Vol.29, No.3, pp.174-182
46)  Pedro, Longart. Eugenia, Wickens. & Ali, Bakir. (2017) An Investigation into Restaurant Attributes: A Basis for a Typology, International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, Vol.19, No.1, pp.95-123.
47)  Pearce, N. (1990) Towards formula for source, GIS project management,UK.p1.
48)  Pine, B.J. & Gilmore, J.H. (1999) The experience economy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
49)  Raun, J. & Ahas, R. & Tiru, M. (2016) Measuring tourism destinations using mobile tracking data, Tourism Management, Vol.57, pp.202–212.
50)  Scuttari, A. & Lucia, M.D. & Martini, U. (2013) Integrated planning for sustainable tourism and mobility. A tourism traffic analysis in Italy’s south tyrol region. J. Sustain. Tour, Vol.21, No.4, pp. 614–637.
51)  Tsung-Yu, Choua. & Chia-Lun, Hsub. & Mei-Chyi, Chen. (2008) A fuzzy multi-criteria decision model for international tourist hotels location selection, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol.27, No.2, pp.293–301.
52)  Wujun Xi, 1. a. & Renjuan, Luo. (2016) Study on Characteristics of Spatial Distribution of Restaurants in Built-up Area of Chuxiong City, The 2016 International Conference on Advances in Energy, Environment and Chemical Science, Published by Atlantis Press (AEECS 2016).
53)  Xia, J. C. & Zeephongsekul, P. & Packer, D. (2011) Spatial and temporal modelling of tourist movements using Semi-Markov processes, Tourism Management, Vol.32, No.4, pp. 844-851.
54)  Yildiz, S. & Akbulut, M. T. (2013) Current trends in developing urban tourism, Archnet-IJAR, Vol.7, No.2, pp.297-310.