Evaluation of Tensile Quality of Urban Space in Religious Tourism Development Case Study: Zanjan Muharram Mourning Ceremony

Document Type : Research Article


Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran


Extended Abstract
Religious tourism is one of the oldest and most popular forms of tourism, especially in Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tensile quality of urban spaces in Moharram decade of Zanjan and its effects on the development of religious tourism. The purpose of tensile factors is tourists’ perception of tourism district attractions. Tourism infrastructure, atmosphere, social environment, welfare and tranquility of tourists, transportation, service development, the popularity of the tourist area and other related factors are among the factors of tensile. Pull factors lead tourists to better choose their tourist destination. The quality and variety pattern of pull factors encourage tourists to revisit the place. In religious tourism, the ceremony and mourning quality, the spatial and environmental quality of the space, the various services quality such as medical, media, catering, religious accommodation are effective on the selection and re-attendance. Although in religious tourism, epistemological, religious and doctrinal factors have a greater impact on the choice of tourist destination, still psychological factors resulting from the spiritual space of tourism along with spatial-spatial quality can make tourists more satisfied with the tourism space and Lead to the desired spiritual and mental memory of being at the destination and reproduction of tourism.
The present study based on descriptive-analytical method has examined the pull factors and indicators in Zanjan city in the mentioned ceremony and also has explained the role of these factors in the development of religious tourism. The sample size was randomly completed with 160 sample questionnaires. The data collected were implemented in SPSS software and data analysis were performed by using of t-sample statistical test, Pearson multivariate stepwise regression test and simultaneous multivariate regression. The variables were used inculding Space welfare services, space management, safety, law enforcement and security services and media coverage services. The Cronbach's alpha value for the total research instrument indicators was 0.77.
Results and discussion
The tensile indicators of Zanjan urban space with a positive average difference of 0.74 were higher than the set standard (number 3) but require the development of infrastructure to create more desirable conditions. Among the spatial tensile indicators, the national and international media coverage had the highest difference from the standard and indicated a more appropriate situation,so that the difference between the set average was equal to 1.25. Weak infrastructures such as parking, accommodation, catering, transportation and so on have led to a decrease in the amount of difference from the set standard and with a difference of 0.8 in the border edge of the set limit. As in the two variables of parking and services Passenger, the average difference value is negative and less than the standard limit. Therefore, paying attention to welfare and transportation infrastructure is an inevitable necessity of urban space. Among the variables, except for the three variables of safety and traffic control, passenger transportation and parking services were in a low standard state that showed the weakness of Zanjan's transportation services in supporting the ceremony. The examined indicators were significantly related to each other at the 95% confidence level and performed well with each other.This indicated the dependence of the indicators on each other and the qualitative decline of the indicators leads to the qualitative decline of the tensile capacity of the urban space. Based on the results of multivariate regression, spatial tensile indicators separately explained more than 60% of religious tourism and were effective on each other. Thus, the variance of the total indicators explaining religious tourism was 100%. An examination of the effectiveness of the four spatial tensile indicators on the religious tourism development index in multivariate regression showed that the impact of indicators on tourism development was significant and close to each other and mainly more than 37% were effective on the development of religious tourism. However, the greatest effect was related to the welfare service index, which in the above studies, the weakness of this index compared to other indicators was evident. It is necessary to review the welfare services index of urban space and improve specific programs by providing guides.
The results showed that the tensile indicators average of urban space in Zanjan were higher than the set standard (number 3) and this factor was effective on increasing the number of tourists with religious intentions. In the indicators of tensile quality of urban space, media coverage of religious ceremonies in Zanjan city gained the highest quality in terms of tourists. According to the results of T-single sample statistics, out of 25 tensile variables of city space, 22 were higher than the standard and all variables had a significant level of acceptance. Lack of parking space for tourists, lack and drop of transportation system and passenger movement quality as well as traffic control weakness have led to a decline in the tensile quality of urban space in providing tourist welfare services. It is necessary to plan, modify and prepare the above-mentioned items, such as using the space of public-government offices and institutions, providing temporary transport fleet from neighboring provinces, and smart traffic monitoring and control.


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