Explaining the Creative Tourism Development Strategies of Rasht City

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

3 M.A of Urban Planning, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran


Extended Abstract
Investing in projects, according to the industrial development guide of United Nations, is the use and allocation of economic resources to achieve long-term benefits. The use of the word profit instead of resources is due to the fact that the purpose of investing is not limited to net profit and loss, but also has other benefits. One of these benefits includes the use of the tourism industry, which has developed in the world, especially in developed countries, as a large sector along with other economic ones. And it can become a basic industry along with other fundamental ones such as agriculture, industry and services. The city of Rasht is located as one of the largest urban centers on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, which has natural features, topographic features, river-valleys, forests, sea and historical sites. In recent years, despite holding various exhibitions and urban events and using the environmental protection force and special attention to sustainable development, management of Rasht city has not been able to make appropriate exploit of the city's potential. Absence of strategic vision and lack of attention to the rich cultural characteristics of the people of Rasht, has caused the city to lose its balance of strategic planning structures. The city of Rasht is considered as an attractive and cheap destination for tourists, but there is still no suitable place to compete in the world. Therefore, the explanation of creative urban tourism development strategies is as a concern in the field of urban planning that can increase GDP.
In order to achieve the method and methodology of this study, a qualitative study has been conducted with the grounded theory approach. The reason for choosing the grounded theory is that executive techniques can be achieved based on this one. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the situation of Rasht city in the aspect of creative city indicators. At first, it reviews the indicators used in the world, and after selecting the indicators in accordance with the background conditions of this city, it measures and quantifies them. The purpose of this study is not only to evaluate the creative city indicators of Rasht, but also the main goal of this research is to exploit the potentials of Rasht city, to provide solutions for urban creativity and to apply practical strategies to attract domestic and foreign investment based on achieved strategies of the research results. According to the above, it can be said that the present study seeks to answer the questions as follow:
-What is the situation of the creative city indicators in Rasht city?
-What are the appropriate strategies for the development of creative tourism of Rasht city?
The present research is descriptive-quantitative one with applied nature. In order to collect information, 393 questionnaires were completed through residents. The data were analyzed by using of binomial tests, correlation and exploratory factor analysis(EFA). Then, after analyzing the statistical data, the proposed strategies are presented through the SOAR strategic model.
Results and discussion
From the data analysis, several central categories have been obtained: Restrictions of Rasht city, popular culture, undesirable social structure, uneven and dysfunctional management, lack of urban infrastructure, dysfunctional transportation system, weakness of education, overlapping tasks of organizations and poor advertising in underdeveloped tourism have cause confusion and imbalance in urban sustainable development and also have influenced strategies.
According to the consequences of the adopted strategies and based on the definitions of events, tourism and sustainable development, it can be argued that the city of Rasht does not have thorough cultural facilities and it is not possible to hold various events. One of the considered and inferred strategies, is the creation of food festivals during different seasons, which can be useful for the development of tourism and introducing the local food of this city to domestic and foreign tourists. Teaching traditional foods of this city to tourists is another achieved strategy of the research. Because in today's modern world, tourists are not just looking for entertainment; their basic need is to acquire the indigenous culture of cities and countries and to spread it in their own country. According to the research and the results of the analysis in order to achieve the objectives of the research, there is a basic need to create valuable and educational places. Establishing guidance centers in the city and holding training courses are other strategies that we have witnessed a lack of them. Considering the capacities of Rasht city in the field of creative gastronomy city and suitable cultural contexts among the people of Rasht city, it can be expected the development of tourism with increasing the quality of services and products based on providing the necessary training as one of the requirements of sustainable development, in addition to creating the platform for people to benefit from the brand of creative gastronomy city.


1)      اسدی، احمد و سامی، ابراهیم (1397) ارزیابی میزان تطابق شهر قاین با شاخص‌های شهر خلاق، فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی نگرش نو در جغرافیای انسانی، سال 10، شماره 4، صص. 13-26.
2)      ایراندوست، کیومرث و غلامی زارچی، مصطفی (1394) ارتقای فرصت حضور و مشارکت مردم با استفاده از معرفی گونه‌های فضای عمومی شهر خلاق، نشریه معماری و شهرسازی هنرهای زیبا، دوره 20، شماره 2، صص. 58-47.
3)      بابایی همتی، روشن و موسوی، نرجس (1393) گردشگری خلاق، چاپ اول، گیلان: انتشارات جوانان موفق.
4)      بذرافشان، جواد و بامری، علی (1397) بررسی و تحلیل وضعیت گردشگری خلاق در شهر زاهدان، فصلنامه برنامه ریزی منطقه‌ای، پاییز 1397، سال 8، شماره 31، صص. 180-167.
5)      پوراحمد، احمد؛ حمیدی، اکبر؛ فرهادی، ابراهیم؛ حسین پور، مهدی (1395) ارزیابی چالش‌ها و فرصت‌های ایجاد شهر خلاق در مناطق آزاد تجاری (مطالعه موردی، منطقه آزاد تجاری ارس)، مطالعات برنامه ریزی و سکونتگاه‌های انسانی، سال 11، شماره 37، صص. 18-1.
6)       آبادی، جعفر؛ اصغری، محمد؛ سلطانی، اکبر؛ محمدی، سیده مؤمنه (1392) سری آمار: همبستگی و رگرسیون، مجله دیابت و لیپید ایران، دوره 12، شماره 6، صص. 506-479.
7)      خراسانی، محمدامین؛ حیدری، قاسم (1398) مدیریت راهبردی توسعه گردشگری تفرجی شهرستان شهریار با اتکا به مدل PESTEL، نشریه گردشگری شهری، دوره 6، شماره 4، صص. 94-73.
8)       رفیعیان، محسن (1389) درآمدی بر مناطق و شهرهای خلاق، مجله شهرداری‌ها، سال 11، شماره 100، صص. 12-6.
9)       سرور، رحیم؛ اکبری، مجید؛ امانی، مریم؛ طالشی انبوهی، مرضیه (1395) تحلیل کارایی محلات شهری ازلحاظ شاخص‌های شهر خلاق، جغرافیا (فصلنامه انجمن جغرافیای ایران)، سال 14، شماره 48، صص. 351-322.
10)    شاطریان، محسن؛ حیدری سورشجانی، رسول؛ ورفی نژاد، ژیلا (1396) اثرات توان گردشگری در گسترش زیرساخت‌ها و ایجاد شهر خلاق، جغرافیا (فصلنامه انجمن جغرافیای ایران)، سال 15، شماره 52، صص. 216-201.
11)    شاطریان، محسن؛ حیدری سورشجانی؛ رسول؛ ورفی نژاد، ژیلا (1398) مدل‌سازی تأثیرات گردشگری شهری بر کیفیت زندگی و شهر خلاق در شهر کرمانشاه، فصلنامه آمایش جغرافیایی فضا، سال 9، شماره 33، صص. 60-51
12)    شبانی، امیرحسین؛ ایزدی، محمد سعید (1395) رویکرد نوین به بازآفرینی شهر خلاق، نقش جهان - مطالعات نظری و فناوری های نوین معماری و شهرسازی، سال 14، شماره 2، صص. 63-54.
13)    شمسی، خضر؛ کرکه آبادی، زینب؛ کامیابی، سعید (1397) مروری بر مفهوم شهر خلاق با تأکید بر سنجش وضعیت خلاق شهری، فصلنامه مطالعات برنامه‌ریزی سکونتگاه‌های انسانی، دوره 13، شماره 2، صص. 441-425.
14)   شهابیان، پویان و رهگذر، عرفانه (1391) پیوند محیط خلاق با شهر، نشریه منظر، تابستان 1391، دوره 4، شماره 19، صص. 73-67.
15)   صحراییان، زهرا و موحد، علی (1396) تحلیل و شناسایی پهنه‌های زمینه‌ساز توسعه خلاق بافت فرسوده با تأکید بر گردشگری، آمایش جغرافیایی فضا، سال 7، شماره 26، صص.47-31.
16)   ضرابی، اصغر؛ موسوی، میرنجف؛ باقری کشکولی، علی (1393) بررسی میزان تحقق‌پذیری شهر خلاق (مقایسه تطبیقی بین شاخص‌های توسعه پایدار شهری و معیارهای ایجاد شهر خلاق، نمونه موردمطالعه: شهرهای استان یزد)، جغرافیا و توسعه فضای شهری، سال 1، شماره 1، صص. 17-1.
17)   عزت پناه، بختیار (1399) تبیین نیروهای پیشران مؤثر بر آینده توسعه صنعت گردشگری در شهرهای مرزی (مطالعه موردی: شهر بانه)، نشریه گردشگری شهری، دوره 7، شماره 1، صص. 87-69.
18)   فتوحی مهربانی، باقر؛ کلانتری، محسن؛ رجایی، سید عباس (1395) شهر خلاق و شاخص‌های شهر خلاق ایرانی، جغرافیا (فصلنامه انجمن جغرافیای ایران)، سال 14، شماره 51، صص. 118-101.
19)   قربانی، رسول؛ حسین‌آبادی، سعید؛ طورانی، علی (1392) شهرهای خلاق، رویکردی فرهنگی در توسعه شهری، فصلنامه مطالعات جغرافیایی مناطق خشک، سال 3، شماره 11، صص. 18-1.
20)   کلانتری، بهرنگ؛ یاری قلی، وحید؛ رحمتی، اکبر (1391) فضای جمعی و شهر خلاق، مجله منظر، دوره 4، شماره 19، صص. 79-74.
21)   Adams, Rob. (2005) What Make a Creative City? Journal of Australians Planner, Vol.42, No.1, pp. 20-21.
22)   Cela, Ariana. & Knowles-Lankford, Jill. & Lankford, Sam. (2007) Local Food Festivals in Northeast Iowa Communities: A Visitor and Economic Impact Study, Managing Leisure, Vol.12, No.2-3, pp. 171-186.
23)   Comunian, Roberta. & Taylor, Calvin. & Smith, David N. (2014) The role of universities in the regional creative economies of the UK: hidden protagonists and the challenge of knowledge transfer, European planning studies, Vol.22, No. 12, pp. 2456-2476.
24)   Cudny, Waldemar. (2016) Festivalisation of Urban Spaces: Factors, Processes and Effects, Publisher Springer.
25)   Del Barrio, Maria Jose. & Devesa, Maria. & Herrero, Luis Cesar. (2012) Evaluating Intangible Cultural Heritage: The Case of Cultural Festivals, City, Culture and Society, Vol.3, No.4, pp.235-244.
26)   Della Lucia, Maria. & Trunfio, Mariapina. & Go, Frank M. (2017) Heritage and urban regeneration: Towards creative tourism, Publisher Springer Cham.
27)   Duxbury, Nancy, & Richards, Greg. (2019) A Research Agenda for Creative Tourism, Publisher Edward Elgar.
28)   Filiz Kara bag, Solmaz. & Cihan Yavuz, Mehmet. & Berggren, Christian. (2010) The Impact of Festivals on City Promotion: A Comparative Study of Turkish and Swedish Festivals, Original Scientific Paper, Vol.59, No.4, pp.447-464.
29)   Florida, Richard. & Mellander, Charlotta. & King, Karen. (2015) The Global Creativity Index 2015, Publisher Martin Prosperity Institute.
30)   Gospodini, Aspa. (2001) Urban Design, Urban Space Morphology, Urban Tourism: An Emerging New Paradigm concerning Their Relationship, European Planning Studies, Vol.9, No.7, pp. 925-934. 
31)   Grodach, Carl. (2012) Before and after the creative city: The politics of urban cultural policy in Austin, Texas, Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol.34, No.1, pp.81-97.
32)   Hartley, John. & Potts, Jason. & MacDonald, Trent. (2012) The CCI Creative City Index 2012, Cultural Science Journal, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 138-145.
33)   Hollows, Joanne. & Jones, Steve. & Taylor, Ben. & Dowthwaite, Kimberley. (2014) Making sense of urban food festivals: Cultural regeneration, disorder and hospitable cities, Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, Vol.6, No.1, pp.1-14.
34)   Johansson, Marjana. & Kociatkiewicz, Jerzy. (2011) City Festival: Creativity and Control in Staged Urban Experiences, European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol.18, No.4, pp.392-405.
35)   Kowalczyk, Andrzej. & Derek, Marta. (2020) Gastronomy and Urban Space: Changes and Challenges in Geographical Perspective, edition1, Publisher Springer Nature Spain.
36)   Law, Rob. (2005) eTourism: Information Technology for Strategic Tourism Management by Dimitrios Buhalis, Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Research, Vol.20, No.1, pp. 134-136.
37)   Lewis, Nathaniel M. & Donald, Betsy. (2010) A New Rubric for ‘Creative City’ Potential in Canada’s Smaller Cities. Urban Studies, Vol.47, No.1, pp. 29-54.
38)   Lyck, Lise. & Long, Phil. & Grige, Allan. Xenius. (2012). Tourism, Festivals and Cultural Events in Times of Crisis, edition1, Publisher Frederiksberg Bogtrykkeri Denmark.
39)   Marques, Lenia & Borba, Carla. (2017) Co-Creating the City: Digital Technology and Creative Tourism, Tourism Management Perspectives, Vol.24, No.10, pp. 86-93.
40)   Montoya, M.J.R. & Stasiewicz, Claire. (2020) Leveraging Historical Shifts in the World Economy: Systems of Patronage and Supportive Ecosystems for Creative and Cultural Enterprise, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol.40, No.2, pp.247-269.
41)   O'Sullivan, Diane. & Pickernell, David. & Senyard, Julienne. (2009) Public Sector Evaluation of Festivals and Special Events. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, Vol.1, No.1, pp.19-36.
42)   Pappalepore, Ilaria. & Maitland, Robert. & Smith, Andrew. (2014) Prosuming Creative Urban Areas. Evidence from East London, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.44, No.16, pp.227-240.
43)   Quinn, Bernadette. (2019) A Comment on: Arts Festivals, Urban Tourism and Cultural Policy, Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 264-279.
44)   Richards, Greg. (2010) Creative Tourism and Cultural Event, edition1, Publisher Tiburg University Tilburg.
45)   Rojas Rabaneda, Antonio. (2019) La recreación histórica en Cataluña como recurso de la socialización del conocimiento, Her&Mus. Heritage and Museography, Vol.20, pp. 123-147.
46)   Ronan, M. (2016) The Creative City: Full STEAM Ahead, Publisher Routledge.
47)   Sasaki, Masayuki. (2008) Developing Creative Cities through Networking, Policy Science, Vol.15, No.3, pp.77-88.
48)   Yu, Chung-En. & Sun, Runsheng. (2019) The Role of Instagram in the UNESCO's Creative City of Gastronomy: A Case Study of Macau, Tourism Management, Vol.75, No.10, pp. 257-268.