Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
Associate Professor of Economics, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor of Business Management, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Assistant Professor of Business Management, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor of Archeology, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
Ph.D. Student of Tourism, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabatabai University
The formation of participation in tourism is inevitable both under the influence of external factors and due to the internal nature of this industry. Extremely changing conditions resulting from technological change and increasing advances in knowledge have created a competitive atmosphere for the industry in which individual firms have no place. Hence, the partnership between tourism companies has become obvious. In addition, the fragmentation and small scale of industry actors has intensified the need to enter into partnerships. But there are different types of participation which public-private participation is one of the most prominent. Therefore, several studies have been conducted in this regard, the aggregation and selection of which in the form of a systematic review study could lead to the expansion of knowledge in this area and receive some operational points. The goal pursued in this study.
The present study is a descriptive-fundamental study that has used systematic review to survey previous studies. In order to pursue this important, five key steps were considered such as determining the search strategy and the criteria for selecting articles, reviewing the search output, extracting the data and evaluating the quality. In the search strategy determination step, the searched keywords, searched databases and search time were explained. In the search criteria step, the authors have set the boundaries for articles to enter the systematic review process. In the search output step, the screening method and selection of articles from the 233 found sources, were determined. In the data extraction step, 40 selected articles were analyzed based on the indicators of research situation, scope of participation, type of research based on purpose, data collection method, collection tools, time, research community and sampling method. In addition, the factors affecting public-private participation in tourism were also examined from the perspective of these studies. Quality Assessment, as a final step, shows how resources are assessed based on the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).
Results and discussion
Most of the studies in terms of research location are related to Italy (13%). The field related to the restoration, protection and exploitation of heritage and historical monuments (30%) has a special place in relation to the field of public-private partnerships in tourism and has been the focus of many studies in this field. Descriptive research (92.5%) with the method of collecting qualitative data (60%), using secondary data / documents (50%) and case studies (80%) have received more attention. Stakeholders (37.5%) constitute the dominant statistical population of these research papers. This seems obvious, given that research papers have examined the experiences of public-private partnerships on a case-by-case basis. Because researchers have sought to survey the people involved - especially the public and private sides - who have been involved in these experiences in some way. Targeted / available sampling (75%) has a special place. Regarding the factors affecting participation, most of the frequency is related to the target factor of participation (82.5%).
In addition to the structural aspects that were considered in the review of selected articles, the identification of the effective factors on public-private partnerships in tourism was another aspect that researchers have addressed. In this regard, several factors such as the content of the partnership, stakeholders, objectives of the partnership, duties of the partnership sides, interests of the partnership parties, technological-information factors, socio-cultural factors, legal factors, financial-economic factors, geographical-environmental factors and political-governmental factors, were identified as the effective factors on public-private participation. Content of participation is a factor that must be considered during the public-private partnership process. Stakeholders (35%) refer to natural and legal persons who are somehow involved in the process of public-private participation in tourism or are affected by this phenomenon. Goals (82.5%) are considered as the motivation for the formation of partnership between the public-private sector. Information-technological factors emphasize technological advances and the awareness of such partnerships. Socio-cultural factors focus on the acceptance of public-private partnerships in tourism by the host community. Legal factors highlight the effective legal frameworks in this area. Financial-economic factors consider the economic situation of countries as an effective factor in public-private participation in tourism. Environmental-geographical factors are important from the perspective of the seasonality of the tourism industry, and political-governmental factors consider the aspect of government support for public-private partnerships in the tourism industry. Among them, the purpose of participation - as a motivation for the formation of partnership between the public-private sector in tourism - has had the most repetition in selected studies. Stakeholders were identified as the second most effective and repetitive factor in multiple sources.