Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
Human Geography and Spatial Planning Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
The two countries of Iran and Italy have a very ancient history and, accordingly, magnificent effects in the architecture and urban planning of their historical-urban centers. Protection of this rich cultural heritage on an urban scale requires the existence and implementation of related laws and policies. This comparative research is an analytical and descriptive method, with the study and analysis of documents of comprehensive and detailed city plans in Persian, Italian and English, field investigations in the two historical cities of Urmia and Turin, while examining the laws and policies of the two countries in the protection of cultural heritage in cities. Historically, it examines the heritage of both cities and policies to preserve them. The comparative study of these laws in terms of the type and quality of the planning system in comprehensive and detailed plans along with the analysis of the policies of these two countries for more efficient protection of cultural heritage in line with sustainable urban management are the goals of this research. The results showed that in addition to many cultural similarities, especially in the knowledge of cultural heritage and works, both societies have commonalities both in terms of perceptive philosophy in the discussion of cultural heritage protection and in the type of interventions in historical contexts. Despite the developmental similarities of both cities and, as a result, similar programs in the field of cultural heritage protection, intervention methods in Urmia are more traditional and native, and in Turin based on decentralized modern planning and policies. With the intelligent use of scientific management, from the strategy of spreading the pressure of uses and activities depleting the central-historical context to other neighboring units and using new technologies, while effectively protecting the cultural heritage, Turin has strengthened its tourism as the main source of urban income, which this intelligent approach For the cities of Iran, including Urmia, in obtaining alternative incomes for oil, including tourism, is in line with sustainable urban development.
The historical parts of the city, which carry cultural-historical values, need protection and preservation. In addition to having useful and valuable messages for the next generation, these structures are also part of the commonalities of a nation and a factor of unity. Controlling the environment, monitoring, observing and studying, and planning and policy-making are ways to achieve this level of protection. Iran and Italy, the survivors of the Persian and Roman civilizations, have had a tremendous impact on all areas of architecture, art, literature, industry and science on a global scale. Both Iran and Italy need to preserve the rich cultural heritage of the past in order to achieve sustainable development; This category is achieved through systematic policies and laws for the preservation and protection of valuable urban cultural heritage as the main strategy of the work.
A comparative study of the laws and policies for the protection of historical and cultural heritage of cities, given the position of their planning system in the legal system of both countries, is the main purpose of this article. Among the questions that have been studied and analyzed in this study are: What are the similar architectural, historical and geographical features of the ancient textures of the studied cities and how can these similarities not be used as imitations? From the European city of Turin, but also for scientific and practical comparisons in achieving an ecological model in the field of policies and planning based on sustainable development, especially in the field of protection of cultural heritage of Iranian cities, including Urmia? Are there any goals in making policies and laws for the protection of historical centers in the cities of Urmia and Turin? What factors and actors are involved in policy-making and preparation of urban laws of urban historical centers for the protection of historical monuments and cultural heritage? The effect of the type of centralized and decentralized planning system and different approaches in looking at the issue of cultural heritage protection in Iran and Italy What are the consequences of protecting the historical monuments of Urmia and Turin?
The present research is fundamental-applied and in terms of method, descriptive-analytical. This applied research begins with pure studies and ends with experimental research in order to plan and formulate executive activities. The study of legal documents of the two countries in the field of cultural heritage protection along with the study of global trends provides knowledge that allows the analysis of strengths and weaknesses of each policy in the practical use of these analyzes and pathologies in Provides communities with historical contexts that need to be protected. Information and data were inductively collected, collected, compressed, classified and then analyzed. The present study relies on the methods and tools of collecting documentary and field information and has mastered both English and Italian, while being complex and time-consuming. Strengthens the knowledge of indigenous urban management, especially in the field of protection of urban cultural heritage; From this point of view, the present research work contains new ideas and creative research methods.
Results and discussion
The various urban development plans for the city of Urmia did not have clear and orderly orientations to preserve its cultural monuments. Urmia's cultural heritage, due to its many similarities with Turin in terms of the city's early origins, antiquity and development to the modern era, makes this comparative comparison more practical. The city of Turin has recreated and protected its historical and cultural monuments in the following ways: 1) Implementing comprehensive policies and programs for historical sections; 2) Implementation of non-physical soft strategies for the protection of cultural heritage. The city has not physically repeated this policy in important and sensitive historical areas of the city with heavy physical surgeries, taking advice from its past, especially in the comprehensive initial plans, which were a kind of destruction in the central parts due to health issues and renovation. In fact, the city owes its soft and strategic policies today, such as the central backbone and international Turin, which have led to the growth and prosperity of the city, especially in the field of cultural heritage protection, to this kind of thinking. This study, while further examining these laws and policies, can lead to the development of guidelines for good urban governance and sustainable development in the protection of historical contexts and urban cultural heritage, and the results are due to the many similarities between the two. The study community should benefit other historical cities of the country.
The results showed that in addition to many cultural similarities, especially in the recognition of cultural monuments and heritage, both societies have commonalities both in terms of perceptual philosophy in the discussion of cultural heritage protection and in the type of interventions in historical contexts. Despite the developmental similarities between the two cities and the consequent similar programs in the field of cultural heritage protection, intervention methods in Urmia have been more traditional and indigenous and in Turin based on decentralized modern planning and policies. Turin uses the scientific management approach intelligently, the strategy of spreading the pressure of land uses and depleting activities of the central-historical context to other neighboring units, and the use of new technologies, while effectively protecting the cultural heritage of its tourism industry as the main source. Urban revenue has strengthened, and this smart approach for Iranian cities, including Urmia, to earn alternative oil revenues, including the tourism industry, is in line with sustainable urban development.