Investigation the Effect of Cultural Intelligence of Tabriz Bazaar Traders and Shopkeepers on Loyalty of Domestic Tourists

Document Type : Research Article


1 Professor of Natural Geography, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Master of Geography and Tourism Planning, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


Extended Abstract
Tourism has further expanded and has become a more powerful industry in the world, which
highly influences the economy of a country. Also, it is associated with several other sectors, such as advertising, endorsements, product placements, sponsorships, and commercial organizations. With the rapid changes of the twentieth century, tourism has now become one of the most important economic features among various societies. Cities are the most significant tourism destinations due to historical, cultural and shopping centers. Attendance of tourists in urban areas can contribute to the economic prosperity of a region, and this depends on several factors. One of the most important factors is the interaction between the host society and the tourists, which is named cultural intelligence, which affects the sense of loyalty of tourists for re-entry to tourism destinations. Cultural intelligence can lead to effective communication between the host society and tourists and will provide an important competitive advantage for the tourism industry in the region and also it can increase desire of tourist for re-visit of region. In addition, tourists’ loyalty is “a deeply held commitment to rebuy or re-patronize a preferred product/service consistently in the future thereby causing same repetitive brand or purchasing same brand set, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behaviour.” Tourists’ loyalty also considers a vital feature for destination marketers, because it is connected to much desire with less cost, which includes keeping existing visitors rather than catching new ones. Due to its high potential and various monuments, Tabriz's city is considered one of the favorite destinations for domestic tourists. Among the monuments of Tabriz, the Tabriz grand bazaar, which UNESCO has registered, attracts an abundance of domestic tourists annually. The Bazaar of Tabriz is a historical market situated in the city center of it. It is one of the oldest bazaars in the Middle East and the largest covered bazaar in the world. So, it is important to study the cultural intelligence of Traders and shopkeepers of Tabriz bazaar and its impact on the loyalty of domestic tourists.
The statistical population of this study is incoming tourists and visitors to the Tabriz bazaar and the sample size was selected by the Cochran formula (384). For collecting data and information the questionnaire was used. Data analysis was done by SPSS and AMOS. Also, correlation and structural equations were used to investigate the relationship between variables and test the hypotheses of the research.
Results and discussion
General characteristics of the respondents indicate that out of 384 respondents, 51% were male and 49% female. Of the total respondents 65 people were younger than 20, 264 people were between 20 – 45 years old, 43 people were between 45 – 65 years old, and 12 people were over 65 years old. Results showed that cultural intelligence and motivation of cultural intelligence have positive impact on the loyalty of domestic tourists. So that with the increase of one unit of cultural intelligence motivation, the loyalty of domestic tourists increased about 0/699 units, while the increasing of one unit of cultural intelligence of traders and shopkeepers of Tabriz bazaar caused 1/420 units increasing of domestic tourists’ loyalty. Also, the variables of cultural intelligence strategy, cultural intelligence knowledge and cultural intelligence behavior negatively influenced the loyalty of domestic tourists. The increase of one unit of cultural intelligence strategy of traders and shopkeepers of Tabriz bazaar caused to loyalty of domestic tourists decrease about 0/057 units, and increase of one unit of knowledge of cultural intelligence of traders and shopkeepers caused a decrease of 0/207 units of loyalty of domestic tourists and increase of one unit of cultural intelligence behavior of the traders and shopkeepers caused to loyalty of domestic tourists decrease about 0/076 unit.
This study was going to find the relationship between cultural intelligence variables, cultural intelligence strategy, cultural intelligence knowledge, cultural intelligence motivation, and cultural intelligence behavior of Tabriz bazaar traders and shopkeepers on loyalty of domestic tourists. Based on the literature, some hypotheses have been written and by using of structural equation modeling the results have shown that this research can be acceptable. The results show that cultural intelligence in the statistical community is admitted by tourists at an acceptable level and tourists' loyalty to the tourism destination and their desire to travel to this city is high so that the cultural intelligence of the Tabriz bazaar traders and shopkeepers effectively and positively affects the loyalty of the domestic tourists. Among the dimensions of cultural intelligence, the motivational dimension and the knowledge dimension were the most and least effective ones, respectively. Based on the research findings, in order to increase the loyalty of domestic tourists, it is suggested to strengthen the motivational dimension of cultural intelligence.


  1. ابراهیم‌پور، حبیب؛ حسن‌زاده، محمد؛ نعمتی، ولی (1391) رفتار شهروندی سازمانی و وفاداری گردشگران، فصلنامۀ مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری سال 7، شماره 18، صص. 93-73.
  2. اصلانلو، بهاره و خدامی، سهیلا (1393) بررسی اثر هوش فرهنگی بر شوک فرهنگی، سازگاری میان فرهنگی و عملکرد، فصلنامه مطالعات توسعه اجتماعی- فرهنگی، دوره 2، شماره 4، صص. 96-75.
  3. اکبریان رونیزی، سعید رضا و رمضان زاده لسبوئی، مهدی (1394) هوش فرهنگی جامعه میزبان و توسعه گردشگری روستایی مطالعه موردی: منطقه رودبار قصران، شهرستان شمیرانات، فصلنامه جغرافیا و آمایش شهری منطقه‌ای، دوره 5، شماره 16، صص. 212-201.
  4. امیران، حیدر (1384) ارزیابی و سنجش میزان وفاداری کارکنان به سازمان، ششمین کنفرانس بین‌المللی مدیران کیفیت، تهران.
  5. تیموری، راضیه؛ کرمی، فریبا؛ تیموری، زینب؛ صفدری، امین (1393) عوامل مؤثر بر گردشگری مکان‌های تاریخی شهری نمونه موردی: بازار تاریخی کلان‌شهر تبریز، فصلنامه گردشگری شهری، دوره 1، شماره 1، صص. 78-63.
  6. خاماچی، بهروز (1386) شهر من تبریز، نوبت اول، تبریز : ندای شمس.
  7. خوارزمی، امید علی و ابراهیمی، لیلی (1396) تحلیل تأثیر تصویر مقصد بر وفاداری گردشگران، مجله جغرافیا و توسعه فضای شهری، شماره 1، صص. 75- 57.
  8. قنبری، ابوالفضل و احمدیان، فرشته (1397) بررسی عوامل مؤثر در معرفی بازار تبریز به‌عنوان برند گردشگری، فصلنامه گردشگری شهری، دوره 5، شماره 3، صص. 16-1.
  9. کروبی، مهدی؛ امیری، زینب، محمودزاده؛ سید مجتبی (1395) تأثیر هوش فرهنگی بر عملکرد شغلی مطالعه موردی: راهنمایان تور ورودی شهر تهران، مجله برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه گردشگری، دوره 5، شماره 18، صص.136-119.
  10. محبی، سراج‌الدین (1395) بررسی و تجزیه‌وتحلیل تأثیر هوش فرهنگی بر اثربخشی فرایند جذب گردشگر، فصلنامه جغرافیا، سال 6، شماره 2، صص.192-183.
  11. محمدی، مصطفی و میرتقیان رودسری، سید محمد (1398) بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر وفاداری به مقصد گردشگری شهری مطالعه موردی: شهر رامسر، فصلنامه گردشگری شهری، دوره 6، شماره 1، صص. 167-149.
  12. مرصوصی، نفیسه و خانی، محمدباقر (1389) تحلیل کارکردهای اقتصادی بازار تبریز و حوزه نفوذ آن، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، شماره 75، صص. 152-133.
  13. همتی، رضا و زهرانی، داود (1393) بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر رضایتمندی و وفاداری گردشگران خارجی به اصفهان به‌مثابه برند گردشگری، نشریه برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه گردشگری، دوره 3، شماره 10، صص. 182-204.
  14. Akbarianronizi, Saeed Reza. & Ramezanzadeh Lasboyee, Mahdi. (2015) Cultural intelligence of the host community, and rural tourism development Case study: Roudbar-e Qasran district (Shemiranat Township), Geography and Territorial spatial Arrangment, Vol. 5, No.16, pp.201-212. [In Persian].
  15. Amiran, Heidar. (2005) Evaluate and measure the level of employee loyalty to the organization, 6th International Conference of Quality Managers, City Tehran. [In Persian].
  16. Arora, Pallvi. Rohmetra, Neelu. (2010) Cultural intelligence: Leveraging differences to bridge the gap in the international hospitality industry, International Review of Business Research Papers, Vol.6, No.5, pp.216-234.
  17. Aslanloo, Bahareh & Khodami, Soheila. (2014) Considering Effects of Cultural Intelligence on Culture Shock: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Performance, Journal of Socio-Cultural Development Studies, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 75-96. [In Persian]
  18. Cossio-Silva, Francisco-José. & Revill-Camacho, María-Ángeles. & Vega-Vazquez, Manuela. (2019) The tourist loyalty index: A new indicator for measuring tourist destination loyalty?, Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, Vol.4, No.2, pp.71–77.
  19. Deng, Ling. & Gibson, Paul Stephen. (2008) A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness, International Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol.3, No.2, pp.181-197.
  20. Early, Christopher. & Ang, Soon. (2003) Cultural Intelligence, Individual Interaction across Culture, Stanford, CA, Stanford business books.
  21. Ebrahim pour, Habib. & Hasanzadeh, Mohammad. & Nemati, Vali. (2012) Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Tourist, Tourism Management studies Journal,Vol.7, No.18, pp.73-92. [In Persian].
  22. Frangos, C.C. & Karapistolis, Dimitrios. & Stalidis, George. & Fragkos, Constantions. & Sotiropoulos, Ioannis. & Manolopoulos, I. (2014) Tourist Loyalty is All about Prices, Culture and the Sun: A Multinomial Logistic Regression of Tourists Visiting Athens. The 3rd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing, Madrid, Spain, pp.7.
  23. Frías-Jamilena. Dolores, M. & Sabiote-Ortiz, Carmen M. & Martín-Santana, Josefa D. & A. Beerli-Palacio, Asunción. (2018) Antecedents and consequences of cultural intelligence in tourism, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, Vol.8, pp.350-358.
  24. Ghanbari, Abolfazl. & Ahmadian, Fereshteh. (2018) The Study of Effective Factors in Introduction of Tabriz Market as a Tourism Brand, Journal of Urban Tourism, Vol.5, No.3, pp. 1-16. [In Persian].
  25. Hemati, Reza. & Zahrani, Davoud. (2014) An Investigation of Determinants of Satisfaction of Foreign Tourists and Level of Loyalty in Isfahan as a Tourism Destination Brand, Tourism planning and development, Vol.3, No. 10, pp. 182-204. [In Persian]
  26. Hui, Tak Kee. & Wan, David. & Ho, Alvin. (2007) Tourists’ satisfaction, recommendation and revisiting Singapore, Tourism Management, Vol. 28, No.4, pp.965-975.
  27. Imai, Lynn. & Gelfand, Michele J. (2010) The culturally intelligent negotiator: The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.112, No.2, pp. 83–98.
  28. Kanwel, Shahida. & Lingqiang, Zhou. & Asif, Muhammad. & Hwang, Jinsoo. & Hussain, Abid. & Gameel, Arif. (2019) The influence of destination image on tourist loyalty and intention to visit: Testing a multiple mediation approach, Sustainability, No.11, pp.1-19.
  29. Karoubi, Mahdi. & Amiri, Zeinab. & Mahmoodzadeh, Seyed Mojtaba. (2016) The Impact of Cultural Intelligence on Job Performance (Case Study: Incoming Tour Leaders in Tehran), Tourism planning and development, Vol.5, No.18, pp.119-136. [In Persian].
  30. Kelidbari, Hamid Reza. & Rezaieedizgah, Morad. & RajabiJourshari, Pezhman. (2012) The relationship between Cultural Intelligence and job performance of operational staff in ports, Journal of Basic and Applied, Scientific Research, Vol.2, No.6, pp. 6133-6138.
  31. Khamachi, Behroz. (2007) My city is Tabriz, Edition 1, Nedaie Shams, Tabriz. [In Persian].
  32. Kharazmi, Omid Ali. & Ebrahimi, Leili. (2017) An Analysis of the Impact of Destination Image on Tourists’ Loyalty (Case Study: Tabriz City), Geography and urban space development, Vol.4, No.6, pp. 57-75. [In Persian].
  33. Kumar, Naresh. & Rose, Raduan Che. & Subramaniam, Sri Ramalu. (2008) The effects of personality and cultural intelligence on international assignment effectiveness, Journal of Social Sciences. Vol.4, No.4, pp.320-328.
  34. Marsosi, Nafiseh. & Khani, Mohamad Bagher. (2011) The Study of Economic Function of Tabriz Bazaarand its Surrounding Areas, Human geography reaserch quatrely, No.75, 133- 152. [In Persian].
  35. Ming Li, Mobley. & William, H. & Kelly, Aidan. (2012) When do global leaders learn best to develop cultural intelligence? An investigation of the moderating role of experiental learning style, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol.12, No.1, pp.32-50.
  36. Mohammadi, Mostafa. & Mirtaghian Rudsari, Seyyed Mohammad. (2019) Investigating the Factors Affecting the Loyalty of Urban Destination Case Study: Ramsar City, Journal of Urban Tourism, Vol.6, No.1, pp.149-167. [In Persian].
  37. Mohebbi, Serajedin. (2017) Investigation and Analysis of the effect Cultural Intelligence on the Process of Tourist Attraction (Case Study: Managers and Experts in Qeshm Free Zone Organization), Qualterly of Geography (Rigonal planning), Vol.6, No.4, pp.183-192. [In Persian].
  38. Plum, Elisabeth. & Achen, Benedikte. & Dræby, Inger. & Jensen, Iben. (2007) Cultural intelligence: a concept for bridging and benefiting from cultural differences, Borsens Forlag, Copenhagen. Available at:
  39. Rose, Raduan Che. & Kumar, Naresh. (2008) A review on individual differences and cultural intelligence, Journal of International Social Research, Vol.1/4, pp.504-522.
  40. Shin, Shung Jae. & Morgeson, Frederick. & Campion, Michael A. (2007) What you do depends on where you are: Understanding how domestic and expatriate work requirements depend upon the cultural context, Journal of International Business Studies, No.38, pp. 64–83.
  41. Teimouri, Hadi. & Afshar Hoojaghan, Farnaz. & Jenab, Kouroush. & khoury, Sam. (2015) the effect of manager’s cultural intelligence on attracting foreign tourists, journal of tourism and hospitality management, Vol. 3, No.2, pp.39-51.
  42. Teimouri, Razieh. & Karami, Fariba. & Teimouri, Zeynab. & Safdari, Amin. (2015) Affecting Factors in Urban Historical Sites Tourism Case Study: Tabriz Metropolis Historic Market, Journal of Urban Tourism, Vol.1, No.1, 63-78. [In Persian]
  43. Thomas, David.C. & Inkson, Keer. (2003) Cultural Intelligence: people skills for Global Business, San Francisco: Berrett- Koehler Publishers, No.1, pp. 20-26.
  44. Ward, Colleen. & Wilson, Jessie. & Fischer, Ronald. (2011) Assessing the predictive validity of cultural intelligence over time, Personality and individual differences, Vol.51, No.2, pp.138-142.
  45. Zhang, Hongmei. & Fu, Xiaoxiao. & CAI, Liping A. & Lu, Lin. (2014) Destination image and tourist loyalty: A meta-analysis, Tourism management, No.40, pp.213-223.