Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
PhD Student, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Professor of the Department of Geography and Planning, Imam Shahrari Memorial Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Tourism is one of the most dynamic economic activities of the present age that can play an important role in the development of cities and achieving sustainability. Development stimulus projects can help to promote urban tourism. In this way, in addition to revitalization in urban areas, improving the quality of the environment and re-establishing social life; tourism development is also created. Highlighting historical sites, producing and re-producing collective memories and centers of belonging, creating new tourist spaces, etc. through development stimulus projects is the first step to attracting tourists mentally. This raises a wide range of categories and phenomena called urban tourism, which ensures real and civic-urban life by realizing the potential of urban tourism, and historical texture and identity in relation to urban tourism.
District 11, as one of the central areas of Tehran, has the opportunity to attract tourists through various tourist attractions, especially cultural tourism (due to the existence of cultural-artistic centers such as cultural-artistic zones of Rudaki, Vahdat Hall, Theater Shahr, Daneshjoo Park, Arfa Park, Shahriar St. sidewalk, Cultural Foundation, Hassanabad Square, Holy Quran Museum, Qajar period historical houses, (House of Behzad, a prominent Iranian miniature artist, Famour Historical House, Sheikh Hadi Tomb, Timur Tash Historical House, Ustad Moghadam House and Museum, Anis Al-Dawlah Historical House, Amir Bahador House, Tehran Registry Museum), Naib Agha Bazaar (Viceroy), etc.) as well as important economic centers and specialized markets with extra-regional functions and nationwide book publishing centers. Accordingly, this district is a destination for shopping and cultural-artistic tourists. On the other hand, due to its long history and the existence of valuable but worn-out structures, this region needs to develop a program and implement development stimulus projects, especially tourism projects. Because the revitalization of urban spaces is possible through development stimulus projects, which in turn can lead to the development of tourism. Therefore, the present study tries to study the development stimulus projects in this region, to examine their role in promoting the development of tourism in this region, and in this regard, seeks to answer the following question: -What is the effect of development stimulus projects on promoting the development of tourism in District 11 of Tehran?
The present research is part of applied and descriptive-analytical research in terms of purpose and implementation method, respectively, and based on library and field studies. Thus, in the theoretical foundations section, documentary-library studies and field data and questionnaire tools have been used to access research data and information. Dimensions and indicators are obtained based on available sources and theoretical foundations and research. The statistical population of the experts' research includes geography and urban planning professors and PhD students of Tehran University and Central Tehran Branch of Islamic Azad University. To determine the statistical sample size, Sample Power software was used, which estimated 30 people as the sample size. After these steps, the questionnaire was distributed among the statistical community and by defining the latent and obvious variables in the Amos software environment, the effect of each indicator of the development stimulus project on the promotion of urban tourism was investigated.
Results and discussion
In this study, the endogenous variable of tourism development and the exogenous variable is development stimulus projects that were obtained with four variables of physical- spatial, social, economic and environmental. In this study, the latent variables are tourism development (economic, social, managerial, ecological), physical-spatial, social, economic, and environmental, which are shown by the obvious variables. The results of the tables show the validity and reliability of the structure. Fortunately, the modified measurement model has both structural reliability and structural validity. In the first stage, the indicators of physical-spatial, social, economic and environmental projects have a significant and positive effect on the variable of development stimulus projects. The path coefficient (beta) of the intensity of the effect and the direction of these examined paths have also been evaluated positively.
Beta value in the path of physical-spatial projects to development stimulus projects with a coefficient of 0.55, social projects on development stimulus projects with a coefficient of 0.43 and economic projects on development stimulus projects with a coefficient of 0.79, environmental projects with a coefficient of 0.34, and finally, the variable of development stimulus projects have an impact on tourism development with a coefficient of 0.63. Based on the findings, it can be said that among the variables affecting development stimulus projects, economic projects and then physical-spatial projects have the most effect on the variable of development stimulus projects. In total, development stimulus projects with an intensity of 0.63 will affect the development of tourism in the 11th district of Tehran. In other words, if the exogenous variable (independent) of the stimulus projects for the development of a unit changes, the development of tourism will change 0.63 units in the same direction (positive). Therefore, it can be said that the research hypothesis, which is the role of development stimulus projects on tourism development, is confirmed. It can be explained that improving the quality of tourism spaces by relying on development stimulus projects according to the needs and requirements of the region and considering the special position of the region on the one hand preserves the social and economic system of the region (according to the existence of the Enghelab and Valiasr market order in this region) and subsequently prevent the destruction of their physical structure. In addition, the cultural and artistic system of this region will be strengthened (due to the existence of Roudaki cultural-artistic zone and Shahriar sidewalk and the two cultural elements of Vahdat Hall and Theater Shahr).