Document Type : Research Article
Department of business management-international Kish branch- Islamic Azad University- Kish Island - Iran
Department of Business Management, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Business Management, Khonj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khonj, Iran
Tourism is growing as one of the fastest-growing economic sectors. Today, tourism is an influential force in global change and a solution for economies in need because the world's largest industry in terms of employment is domestic production and the fastest industry in terms of economic growth. Based on marketing methods, potential tourists can be attracted to the desired destinations. Therefore, the development of strategic marketing plans can effectively help achieve the desired goals. The discussion of tourism and tourism marketing is generally related to creating a pleasant experience for the customer from the destination, and building this experience is the task of marketing in the field of tourism. Kish Island is one of the most important tourist destinations of Iran with numerous benefits such as a high level of security, social tranquility, civic discipline, natural and manufactured attractions, various tourism services, strategic location and proximity to international cities in the region, access to free global waterways, the possibility of foreign nationals entering without obtaining a visa, existence of an independent airline, and shipping lines with the possibility of carrying a car. Therefore, considering the appropriate facilities and context for tourism development in Kish, it is necessary to identify and study the indicators affecting marketing. Therefore, this study aims to present a model of tourist behavioral tendencies with emphasis on the marketing of Kish tourist destinations. In this research, indicators, variables, and characteristics of the study area have been considered so that this model can be used to improve the marketing status of the destination and affect the destination image of Kish tourists. The combination of four components (infrastructure, tourist satisfaction, tourist motivation, tourism marketing) in the form of a model tries to examine the indicators and their impact on the tourism development process in Kish.
This study is part of applied-developmental and descriptive-survey researches in terms of purpose and method, respectively. The study's statistical population was selected from air and sea inbound and outbound passengers of Kish Island in the three months of December to February 2020-2021, which 384 people were obtained based on Cochran's formula due to the total population. The data collection tool was a questionnaire distributed among tourists in person, and the partial least squares method was used to validate the model. Also, to assess the validity and reliability of the research model and respond to the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analysis has been used, and also, Smart PLS software has been exerted to model the structural equations. The AVE criterion and the CR criterion were used to calculate the convergent validity and the combined reliability coefficient.
Results and discussion
The results showed that the tourism infrastructure variable is an exogenous independent variable and the destination marketing variable has a positive effect on the destination image (before and after the visit). Also, the research findings confirmed the impact of tourists 'motivation and satisfaction on the image of the destination after the visit. Finally, the effect of the image of the tourism destination on the future behavioural tendencies of tourists was also confirmed. The standard path coefficient of the research variables and the value of the obtained t-statistic showed that all research hypotheses had been confirmed. Also, the cross-validity of redundancy and commonality in this research has been obtained positively for all research constructs. Also, the values of the variables are generally obtained in the range of 0.15 to 0.35 or greater than 0.35. Therefore, the predictive power of research structures was moderate to strongly estimated. And the GOF index is 0.403, which shows that the model has a good fit. The results showed that the tourism infrastructure variable is an exogenous independent variable and the destination marketing variable has a positive effect on the destination image (before and after the visit).
The study's findings confirmed the effect of tourists 'motivation and satisfaction on the image of the destination after the visit. Finally, the impact of the image of the tourist destination on the future behavioral tendencies of tourists was also confirmed. Based on the results of confirming the hypotheses, it can be said that the importance of destination marketing components in tourism destinations and its positive effect on improving the image of tourist destinations, while using the improvement of tourism infrastructure to increase the satisfaction and motivation of tourists, it can clarify the importance of destination marketing for tourism authorities and policymakers and help in a better and deeper understanding of this concept and policy-making. Despite the importance of this concept in the development of the tourism industry and the formation of rich literature globally, this issue has not been considered as it should be in tourism studies in Iran and Kish Island, which is one of the most important tourism destinations in the country. And the study gap and the need to pay more attention to this issue are felt in the Iranian tourism literature and the country's tourism development document as an upstream document.