Investigating the Tourism Causes of Urban Second Homes during Outbreak of Covid-19

Document Type : Research Article


Associate Professor of Handicrafts and Tourism, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran


Extended Abstract
The coronavirus has caused international anxiety and travel restrictions imposed by the Health Organization due to its novelty, ease, and speed of transmission, along with extensive media coverage. In Iran, people were asked to cancel unnecessary trips, but with the start of the holiday, many tourists traveled to tourist cities, including Ramsar in Mazandaran province. Due to the closure of accommodation and tourism centers, the majority of incoming tourists to Ramsar were ones who ownership of a second home in the city and are considered second home tourists. In this regard, this study aims to investigate the reasons for the tourism of second homes during the outbreak of coronavirus.
The present study is part of descriptive survey researches in terms of nature. The statistical population of the study was tourists who traveled to Ramsar in the spring and summer of 1399 due to the spread of coronavirus. According to the volume of tourists, the number of samples was calculated based on Cochran’s formula 384 items. In order to check the validity of the content, the necessary consultations were held with the experts and considering their opinion, the proposed problems were corrected and in the re-survey, it was ensured that the questionnaire has the necessary validity. To compare the importance and ranking of the identified variables and components, a comparative questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale (1 = very low to 5 = very high) was used. To measure reliability, a prototype consisting of 30 questionnaires was tested and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to be 0.8. According to the minimum reliability coefficient (0.7), the value obtained indicates the reliability of the questionnaire. In data analysis, SPSS22 software was exerted for prioritization.
Results and discussion
The correlation test showed the four main dimensions of second home tourism at the time of the coronavirus outbreak  that the dimensions of ownership with the amount of correlation (semantic level), 0.89 (0.000), rules and regulations with a correlation value of 0.86 (0.000), personality traits with a correlation value of 0.78 (0.009) and the climatic conditions of the region with a correlation value of 0.68 (0.001) with 95% reliability, respectively, have the highest intensity of direct relationship with the second homes tourism in Ramsar city.
The components of "realization of property rights in any situation" with a strong correlation (0.91) at the significance level of (0.001) and with 95% reliability, "feeling of being a native" with a strong correlation (0.89) at the level of significance (0.000) and 95% reliability, "public facilities similar to the local community" with a strong correlation (0.87) at the significance level of (0.002) and 95% reliability, "vehicle ownership and ease of transportation" with a correlation intensity (0.82) at a significant level of (0.000) and 95% reliability have the highest impact on the ownership factor, respectively.
Components of "no government ban on travel" with a strong correlation (0.80) at the significance level of (0.000) and 95% reliability, "failure to set rules and regulations to prevent travel" with a strong correlation (0.79) at the significance level of (0.004) and 95% reliability, "lack of complete quarantine of cities and villages" with a strong correlation (0.77) at the significance level of (0.017) and with 95% reliability,  "non-imposition of fines for unnecessary trips" with a strong correlation (0.74) at the significance level of (0.004) and 95% reliability, respectively, have the highest impact on the factor of rules and regulations.
The components of "escape from the monotony and daily life" with a correlation intensity (0.75) at the significance level of (0.029) and with 95% reliability, "extending the quarantine period and leisure use" with a strong correlation (0.73) at the significance level of (0.000) and with 95% reliability, "risk-taking and risk acceptance" with a strong correlation (0.70) at the significance level of (0.011) and 95% reliability, "escape from urban pollution and high-risk centers" with a strong correlation (0.68) at the level of significance (0.000) and 95% reliability, "belonging to place" with a strong correlation (0.61) at the significance level of (0.009) and 95% reliability, "acquisition of mental and physical fitness" with the intensity of correlation (0.58) at the significance level of (0.010) and 95% reliability have the highest impact on the factor of personality traits, respectively.
Components of "the existence of attractions" with a strong correlation (0.70) at the significance level of (0.000) and 95% reliability, "natural landscapes" with a strong correlation (0.68) at the significance level of (0.011) and 95% reliability, "environmental calm" with a strong correlation (0.59) at the significance level of (0.005) and 95% reliability, "suitable climate" with the intensity of correlation (0.54) at the significance level of (0.003) and 95% reliability, respectively, have the highest impact on the climatic conditions.
The traffic of non-native cars in different cities and villages of this province, especially in Ramsar city, shows the high number of second homes in this area. Although second homes and the presence of tourists have led to economic prosperity and job creation, in times of crisis such as the recent one, the necessary training should be provided to the host community and tourists and second homeowners, as well as emergency laws. We need to think about projects in which the tourists have a share in the costs and problems made by tourism in the region. Establishing laws and regulations that are restrictive and commensurate with sudden crises, although in the short term will cause a decline in tourism and economic problems for business owners in the field of tourism, it is vital so, in the future, leads the tourism industry to grow and prosper to host communities. Moreover, healthy and educated tourists need to have a good time enjoying themselves and others away from worries.


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