Assessing the Branding Network of the Historical Texture of Cities with a Tourism Approach, Case Study: Dezful City

Document Type : Research Article


Assistant Professor of Urbanization, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology Dezful, Dezful, Iran


Extended Abstract
The existence of an industry in the city can be effective in creating a suitable image. The tourism industry in the third millennium is one of the clean industries that has become one of the world's most prosperous and lucrative industries. As a result, it is possible to use this industry to create urban branding, the historical context of Dezful is one of the essential parts of the city's identity, and its emergence follows information from climatic and cultural structures. For many cities, this shift in attitudes toward the urban texture and the formation of the urban brand will emphasis on the tourism industry as the engine of economic growth and, consequently, the social and physical revitalization of the city's historical texture.
The historical texture of Dezful is the primary core of urban formation and is a major part of the history and background of Dezful. It has historical and functional elements such as Dezful Bazaar and green tombs, etc. This texture did not contribute to the city's sustainable development; Rather, as an inefficient sector, it has diverted the city from the development of the tourism industry and has taken an inappropriate shape. Therefore, it is intended to identify the indicators of the historical context through the branding of the tourism industry with the prosperity of the texture and as a brand to offer tourism to revive the urban texture as a helper of the city economy in the development goals of the tourism industry. So, using the potential of urban potential in order to preserve and develop the urban environment is a task that is a part of the responsibility of urban planners and designers.
 Based on the necessity of the subject, the general purpose of the research is to study the tourism branding of the historical texture and how to use the modeling approach to study the subject in Dezful. In this regard, the present research has been done to answer this question:
- How is it possible to identify tourism branding in Dezful with a modeling approach? And considering the three main economic, social and cultural dimensions influencing the historical findings of Dezful, what are the most important influential variables?
In general, the present study has a development-applied approach with a combined research method (library, field, descriptive and analytical). It should be noted that this research has been used to model the Prometheus technique and also to complete the analysis of the findings using the following software:
 GRAFER, EQS, EXCEL, VPLS, and AMOS-SPSS for statistical and quantitative analysis; Pherafer and VISIO, for preparing diagrams and graphical drawing of data; VPAPRO, to run the Prometheus model.
Based on the information collected, tourism branding in three commercials (economic), sociological and cultural dimensions is the city's historical context in 28 neighbourhoods.
Results and discussion
Based on modeling analysis, the weakest indicators (1-), District C17 (Qala neighborhood) of Dezful city. Also, neighbourhood C22 (Lorian neighborhood) is statistically close to Qaleh neighborhood. District C12 (Seyed Mahmoud) of Dezful city is at the top of urban tourism branding network and in front of it, district C17 (castle) of Dezful city is the lowest network structure. Therefore, in three dimensions of commercials, sociological and cultural, Seyed Mohammad neighbourhood can be used as a model in the tourism industry.
In Dezful branding design, the space is not a page that has a set of factors. Rather, indicators and neighbourhoods function linearly. In this line, C12 neighbourhood is linearly included in this design. Also, neighbourhoods C23,18,1,27,9,10 of Dezful city on one euclidean page and neighbourhoods C16,26,13,14,12 on one page and neighbourhoods C11, 25,17,15,19 on another page and in finally, the neighbourhoods C8,21,14,2,5 are on the page where the most or in other words the decision criteria are located (red line). Therefore, according to this plan, only C12 neighbourhoods have the most brands.
The texture of Dezful city is composed of two parts, modern and organic texture, and it seemed that this ancient texture was out of order and took the city away from the ideal of sustainable development, or that all the potentials of the ancient texture were not used. To revive the sustainable development of Dezful, the main elements of the historical texture of Dezful in the form of 28 neighbourhoods in terms of tourism branding (infrastructure, environment, commercial elements, cultural elements, historical elements) in three dimensions of commercial, cultural, and sociological as influential factors. This brand was examined through the Prometheus model and based on that, Seyed Mahmoud neighbourhood got the highest score in this ranking and the sociological index was recognized as the best brand. Therefore, 1- Cultural route with different perspectives and 2- Transformation of disabled spaces into space of gathering places in these neighbourhoods can be considered in such a way that by forming tourist routes full of natural landscapes with cultural contexts that suitable for exercise and leisure. These routes should be such that tourists can use the different potentials of the tissue. Such as cultural walks with the challenge of location or commercial stores with the development of sports investment. The turning disabled spaces into gathering places for ceremonies or cultural and artistic centers, such as cultural and commercial complexes, art and architecture colleges or anthropological museums, etc.
Therefore, to achieve this goal, sufficient attention should be paid to the following areas:

Employing young people familiar with the tourism work environment;
Creating local streets with a social enjoyment approach and creating social solidarity among the residents of the neighborhood;
Creating welfare and tourism facilities tailored to the needs of tourists;
Strengthen the sense of place with appropriate design to create local and trans-local behavioural camps.


  1. اصغری‌زاده، عزت الله (1392) رتبه‌بندی شرکت‌ها بر اساس معیارهای مدل سرآمدی – روش PROMETHEE، مجله پژوهش‌های مدیریت در ایران، سال 11، شماره 3، صص. 84-59.
  2. اصغری‌زاده، عزت اله؛ بیطرف، احمد؛ اجلی، مهدی (1390) ارائه یک مدل ترکیبی با استفاده از PROMETHEE فازی و برنامه‌ریزی خطی چندهدفه برای برون‌سپاری خدمات گارانتی، مجله چشم‌انداز مدیریت صنعتی، دوره1، شماره 2، صص.60-43.
  3. امانپور، سعید؛ دامن باغ، صفیه؛ علیزاده، هادی (1399) تحلیل عوامل مؤثر در شکل‌گیری تصویر شهر در راستای برند سازی مؤثر شهری اهواز، مجله آمایش جغرافیایی فضا، دوره 10، شماره 35، ص 67-86.
  4. پرچکانی، پروانه (1395) تأثیر مؤلفه‌های فرهنگی در معماری برند شهرها با رویکرد گردشگری مطالعه موردی لیون فرانسه، فصلنامه هنر و تمدن شرق، شماره 12، صص. 50-41.
  5. کردوانی، پرویز و غفاری، ونوس (1390) توریسم و رویکرد نوسازی در طراحی بافت‌های تاریخی شهری مطالعه موردی شهر اصفهان، فصلنامه جغرافیایی سرزمین، دوره 8، شماره 30، صص. 31-19.
  6. حاتمی نژاد، حسین و شریفی، امیر (1394) بررسی نقش گسترش گردشگری شهری بر توسعه پایداری شهری (نمونه موردی: شهر سنندج)، نشریه گردشگری شهری، دوره 2، شماره 1، صص. 74-61.
  7. خانقاهی، مجتبی زاده؛ رحمتی، ملایی علی؛ رحمتی ملایی، معصومه؛ شاهی پور، سونا (1394) تأثیر باززنده‌سازی بافت تاریخی بر توسعه گردشگری، فصلنامه جغرافیا (برنامه‌ریزی منطقه‌ای)، دوره 6، شماره 1، صص. 108-99.
  8. شاهی، سولماز؛ کورکی، فرهاد؛ پورابراهیم، شراره (1394) بررسی روش فراتبه‌ای پرومته و الکتره در تصمیم‌گیری صنعت نفت و پتروشیمی، فصلنامه انسان و محیط‌زیست، شماره 33، صص. 35-17.
  9. شریفی، بابک؛ مبصر سردرودی، آرزو؛ علیخانی، مرتضی؛ طالب پور، منصور (1396) اهمیت نگهداری و احیاء بافت‌های تاریخی و تأثیر آن در گردشگری و توسعه پایدار شهری نمونه موردی شهر خامنه، مجله در هنر و علوم انسانی، شماره 3، صص. 40-23.
  10. شماعی، علی؛ موحد، علی؛ حسن‌پور میرصالح، رضا (1398) تحلیل نقش بازآفرینی بافت قدیم شهر اردکان در توسعه گردشگری شهری، فصلنامه مطالعات شهر ایرانی اسلامی، دوره 9، شماره 34، صص. 72-59.
  11. صدیقه کیانی، سلمی و محمدرضا، بسحاق (1396) شناسایی اثرات گردشگری و نقش آن در توسعه شهری کاشان، فصلنامه مطالعات شهری، دوره 7، شماره 25، صص. 44-31.
  12. طرح منظر شهری بافت کهن دزفول (1391) مهندسان مشاور چغازنبیل، دزفول.
  13. علیزاده، کتایون و روشنایی، حامد (1396) نقش حکمروایی خوب در برند سازی شهری، مجله جغرافیا و توسعه فضای شهری، سال 4، شماره 6، صص. 137-115.
  14. فرزین، محمدرضا؛ شالبافیان، علی‌اصغر؛ محمود زاده، سید مجتبی؛ پورفرج، اکبر و زرندیان، ندا (1400) مرور نظام‌مند ابعاد مطالعات مشارکت عمومی – خصوصی در گردشگری، فصلنامه گردشگری شهری، دوره 8، شماره 1، صص. 112-99.
  15. قلی پور، آرین؛ ابویی، محمد و پیدایش، الهه (1395) بررسی عوامل مؤثر در شکل‌گیری تصویر شهر در راستای برند سازی شهری، نشریه هنرهای زیبا، شماره 45، صص. 50-37.
  16. قهرمانی فرد، حسین؛ حسین زاده دلیر، کریم و موسوی، میرسعید (1400) شناخت و ارزیابی پیشران‌های حیاتی مؤثر بر آینده توسعه گردشگری مطالعه موردی کلان‌شهر تبریز، فصلنامه گردشگری شهری، دوره 8، شماره 1، صص. 82-67.
  17. مرادی، فاطمه و سعیده زرآبادی، زهرا سادات (1396) تبیین مدل برند سازی شهری در راستای ارتقا رقابت‌پذیری و رشد اقتصادی شهری، مجله اقتصاد و مدیریت شهری، شماره 22، صص. 56-33
  18. مودت، الیاس و ولی پور، میلاد (1399) بررسی و طراحی شهر بیوفیلیک با الهام از رودخانه دزفول، مجله جغرافیا و مطالعات محیطی، شماره 34، صص. 42-23.
  19. نعیما، غلامرضا (1385) دزفول شهر آجر، انتشارات میراث فرهنگی کشور، تهران.
  20. Alizadeh, Katayoun. & Roshanai, Hamed. (2017) The Role of Good Governance in Urban Branding, Journal of Geography and Urban Space Development, Vol.50, No. 6, pp. 115-137. [In Persian]
  21. Amanpour, Saeed. & Daman Bagh, Safieh. & Alizadeh, Hadi. (2020) Analysis of effective factors in the formation of the image of the city in the direction of effective urban branding in Ahvaz, Journal of Space Geography, No. 35, pp. 67-86. [In Persian]
  22. Ancient urban landscape design of Dezful (2012) Consulting engineers of Choghaznabil, Dezful. [In Persian]
  23. Anttiroiko, A. V. (2015) City branding as a response to global intercity competition, Growth and change, Vol.46, No.2, pp 233-252.
  24. Asgharizadeh, Ezatollah. (2013) Ranking of companies based on the criteria of excellence model - PROMETHEE method, Journal of Management Research in Iran, Vol.11, No. 3, pp. 84-59. [In Persian]
  25. Asgharizadeh, Ezzatullah. & Bitraf, Ahmad. & Ajli, Mehdi. (2011) Presenting a hybrid model using fuzzy PROMETHEE and multi-objective linear programming for outsourcing warranty services, Journal of Industrial Management Perspective, Vol.1, No. 2, pp.43-60. [In Persian]
  26. Bıcakci. A. (2012) Branding the city through culture: Istanbul, European Capital of Culture, International.
  27. Blasco, L. & Recuero, N. & Martin, S. (2019) The cornerstones of museum performance. A cross-national analysis, Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol.34, No.2, pp.211-233.
  28. Brans, J.P. & Vincke, P.h. & Mareschal, B. (1986) How to select and how to rank projects: The PROMETHEE method, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol.24, pp. 228–238.
  29. Brans, J.P. & Mareschal, B. (2005) PROMETHEE methods, in Figueira, J., Greco, S. and Ehrgott, M. (Eds), Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: State of the Art Surveys, Springer, New York, NY.
  30. Cai, A. (2019) Cooperative branding for rural destinations, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.29, No.3, pp.720-742.
  31. Farzin, Mohammad Reza. & Shalbafian, Ali Asghar. & Mahmoudzadeh, Seyed Mojtaba. & Pourfaraj, Akbar. & Zarandian, Neda. (2021) A systematic review of the dimensions of public-private partnership studies in tourism, Journal of Urban Tourism, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 99-112. [In Persian]
  32. Garbea, R.V. (2013) Urban tourism between content and aspiration for urban development, Management & Marketing-Craiova, Vol.1, pp. 193-201.
  33. Gholipour, Arian. & Abuii, Mohammad. & Pidayesh, Elaheh. (2015) Investigating the effective factors in shaping the image of the city in the direction of urban branding, Journal of Fine Arts, No. 45, pp. 37-50. [In Persian]
  34. Giriwati, N. & Homma, R. & Iki, K. (2013) Urban tourism: Designing a tourism space in a city context for social sustainability. The Sustainable City VIII (2 Volume Set), Urban Regeneration and Sustainability, pp. 1179, 1165.
  35. Hatami Nejad, Hossein. & Sharifi, Amir. (2015) A Study of the Role of Urban Tourism Development on the Development of Urban Sustainability (Case Study: Sanandaj City), Journal of Urban Tourism, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 61-74. [In Persian]
  36. Hospers, G.J. (2003) Creative cities, branding places in the knowledge economy, knowledge, Journal of technology & polic, Vol.16, No.3, pp.143-162.
  37. Ismagilova, G. & Safiullin, L. & Gafurov, I. (2015) Using historical heritage as a factor in tourism development, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.188, pp. 157-162.
  38. Jarle, A. & Havard, N. & Hauglandc, A. (2020) Destination cobranding in interorganizational networks: Assessing the role of central tourism organizations, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 17, pp.10-17.
  39. Jarvisalo, S. (2014) How to build successful city brands? - Case Munich, Berlin & Hamburg, Thesis Degree of Hotel and Restaurant Management, University of Applied Sciences.
  40. Keller, K. L. (2008) Strategic brand management, 3rd edition, Person Prentice Hall.
  41. Khaneghahi, Mojtaba Zadeh. & Rahmati, Mollai Ali. & Rahmati Mollai, Masoumeh. & Shahipour, Sauna (2015) The effect of reviving the historical context on tourism development, Journal of Geography (Regional Planning), Vol.6, No.1, pp. 99-108. [In Persian]
  42. Kordvani, Parviz. & Ghaffari, Venus. (2011) Tourism and the approach of modernization in the design of urban historical contexts Case study of Isfahan, Geographical Quarterly of the Land, Vol.8, No.30, pp. 19-31. [In Persian]
  43. Mavedat, Elias. & Valipour, Milad. (2020) Study and design of a biophilic city inspired by the Dezful River, Journal of Geography and Environmental Studies, No. 34, pp. 23-42. [In Persian]
  44. Milicevic, K. & Mihalic, T. & Sever, I. (2017) An investigation of the relationship between destination branding and destination competitiveness, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol.34, No.2, pp 209– 221.
  45. Moradi, Fatemeh. & Saeedeh Zarabadi, Zahra Sadat. (2017) Explaining the urban branding model in order to promote competitiveness and urban economic growth, Journal of Urban Economics and Management, No. 22, pp. 33-56. [In Persian]
  46. Naima, Gholamreza. (2006) Dezful Brick City, Cultural Heritage Publications, Tehran. [In Persian]
  47. Parchkani, Parvaneh. (2016) The Impact of Cultural Components on the Brand Architecture of Cities with a Tourism Approach: A Case Study of Lyon, France, Journal of Oriental Art and Civilization, No. 12, pp. 41-50. [In Persian]
  48. Purwanti, A. & Genoveva, A. (2018) An evaluation of city branding to reinforce the city compet i t ivenes s (a case s tudy of Surabaya), The IRES internat ional conference, pp 36-41.
  49. Qahramani Fard, Hossein. & Hosseinzadeh Dalir, Karim. & Mousavi, Mir Saeed. (2021) Recognition and evaluation of vital drivers affecting the future of tourism development Tabriz metropolis, Journal of Urban Tourism, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 67-82. [In Persian]
  50. Rehan, R. (2013) Urban branding as an effective sustainability tool in urban development, HBRC Journal, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 222-230.
  51. Sedigheh Kiani, Salmi. & Mohammad Reza, Bashaq. (2017) Identifying the effects of tourism and its role in Kashan urban development, Journal of Urban Studies, Vol.7, No.25, pp. 31-44. [In Persian]
  52. Shahi, Solmaz. & Korki, Farhad. & Poorabrahim, Sharareh. (2015) A Study of Prometheus and Electra Ultra-Methods in Decision Making in Oil and Petrochemical Industry, Journal of Man and Environment, No. 33, pp. 17-35. [In Persian]
  53. Shamai, Ali. & Movahed, Ali. & Hassanpour Mirsaleh, Reza. (2019) Analysis of the role of recreating the old texture of Ardakan city in the development of urban tourism, Iranian Islamic City Studies Quarterly, Vol.9, No.34, pp. 59-72. [In Persian]
  54. Sharifi, Babak. & Observer Sardroudi, Arezoo. & Alikhani, Morteza. & Talebpour, Mansour. (2017) The Importance of Preserving and Reviving Historical Textures and Its Impact on Tourism and Sustainable Urban Development, Bi-Quarterly Journal of Research in Arts and Humanities, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 23-40. [In Persian]
  55. Sonya H. & Jennifer, R. & Brendan, K. (2021) Place and Destination Branding: A Review and Conceptual Mapping of the Domain, Journal Uropean Management Review, Vol. 18, No.2, pp. 1-185.
  56. Vinuesa, M.Á.T. & Torralba, L.T. (2010) Historic cities and tourism: functional dynamics and urban policy, The open Urban Studies Journal, Vol.3, No.2, pp.47-57.
  57. Zamfir, A. & Corbos, R.A. (2015) Towards sustainable tourism development in urban areas: Case study on Bucharest as tourist destination, Sustainability, Vol.7, No.9, pp. 12709-12722.
  58. Zhang, L. & Xiaobin, Z. (2009) City branding and the Olympic effect: A case study of Beijing, Journal of Cities, Vol.26, No.5, pp. 245-254.