Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
PhD Student, Department of Sports Management, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran
Assistant Professor,Department of Sport Management, Qeshm Branch,Islamic Azad University,Qeshm,Iran
The tourism industry, as one of the most important phenomena of the third millennium, has had a significant impact on the economic growth and dynamism and cultural exchanges of countries during the past half-century with its exponential growth. This research was conducted to know the factors affecting the management of sports tourism destinations on the coasts of Hormozgan province. Factors affecting the development of beach sports tourism were prepared through interviews with experts and a questionnaire based on 6 criteria and 60 sub-criteria was compiled. The research population included tourists who were active in beach sports. Questionnaires based on the Morgan table were distributed among 387 tourists. The reliability of the questionnaire was done with Cronbach's alpha test and its validity with confirmatory factor analysis. The normality of the data was checked with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and their correlation with the correlation coefficient. Then Friedman's test was used to rank the effect of the main criteria and sub-criteria. The correlation coefficient indicated the existence of a significant relationship at the 99% level between the main criteria of the research. Friedman's test showed that the criteria of 1) economic marketing, 2) infrastructure facilities, 3) public relations and advertising, 4) social-cultural, 5) political security and 6) managerial are respectively the most important in the development of beach sports tourism in Hormozgan province has In this way, encouraging and supporting private investors, creating infrastructure structures and improving the quality services and marketing of beach sports play a major role in achieving the economic-sports development of Hormozgan beaches.
One of the tourist attractions that play a role in choosing tourist destinations is sports tourism. With the improvement of the socio-cultural situation of the people, the need to visit tourism capacities has increased and people to reduce their internal stress, increase and promote a sense of calm, decide to visit sports events, and use the potential of sports tourism, which take on different geographical locations.
Hormozgan province, located on the northern shores of the Persian Gulf, has a good potential and capacity in the development of beach sports tourism. Soft and sandy beaches, flatness of the beach, suitable depth of the sea for water sports, beautiful marine-coastal ecosystem, beautiful islands and suitable climate for sports are its environmental features. Unfortunately, the government and private companies have ignored this natural benefit and have not made adequate investments in the development of beach-water sports tourism. The large number of tourists who travel to Hormozgan throughout the year is often spontaneous, whose main motivation is to visit the beach, swim, shop, and watch the beautiful islands of the Persian Gulf. If this tourism destination is managed and invested in infrastructure, transportation network, resorts and recreation areas, restaurants and children's playgrounds, and adult entertainment, the field can be provided to attract domestic and foreign tourists. The southern countries of the Persian Gulf hold sporting events every year, especially beach-water sports, with large investments and earn a lot of money from it. Therefore, in order to attract sports tourists, especially water-beach sports in Hormozgan province, a solution must be considered in order to enter this coastal region into a competitive tourism market in the Middle East. So this could be possible if managers and the officials guide the coasts of this province by managing the integrity, correct capabilities and environmental potentials. Therefore, in order to achieve this approach and identify the managerial factors that have led to the development of sports tourism in the coastal cities of Hormozgan province, in the present study, a plan has been developed to advance management strategies of tourism to answer the question as follow:
- What are the effective criteria on tourism destination management in coastal cities of Hormozgan province?
This study is part of the applied research in terms of purpose and is based on a descriptive survey method. The research population included beach-water sports tourists on the coasts of Hormozgan province. A questionnaire was developed among tourists. The standard number of questionnaires based on the Morgan table is 384 questionnaires. In this study, a sample size of 410 questionnaires was distributed, and 395 questionnaires were collected. T-test statistics are used to interpret this test's output results and evaluate the significance of the relationship between variables. The results of all sub-criteria have been obtained more than 1.96. In the present study, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire, which has a coefficient of 0.780 and indicates the reliability of the questionnaire. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test the normality of the research criteria; the level of significance of which for socio-cultural, economic and marketing, political and security criteria, infrastructure, management and public relations, and advertising criteria was 0.070, 0.061, 0.062, 0.059, 0.052 and 0.057, respectively, which indicate that the criteria of this study are normal. For inferential analysis of the response of beach sports tourists, structural equation modeling from Amos Graphic software was applied to the criteria and sub-criteria of the research. Then, a correlation coefficient was used to identify the relationship between the main criteria of the research.
Results and discussion
Analysis of the research community responses showed that the significance level of the criteria was less than 0.05, and indicates that the effect of these criteria is significant on the management of beach sports development and its results are reliable. Based on the correlation coefficient results, the relationship between the criteria is significant at the level of 99%. It indicates that a change in one criterion can cause changes in another one. According to the Friedman test, the economic-marketing criterion with an average rank of 33.8 has the most significant effect on tourism development management with a beach sports approach. Next, with an average rating of 3.81, infrastructure was ranked second in tourism development priority. Then, public relations, advertising, socio-cultural, political and security, and management were the following priorities, with an average rank of 3.80, 3.40, 3.36, and 2.75.
The results of the present study showed that the economic-marketing criteria in the field of beach sports and tourist attraction, sports facilities for the beach, public relations and advertising of beach sports, socio-cultural, political-security characteristics and management have the greatest importance in the development of beach sports in Hormozgan province. Economic criteria with an emphasis on proper marketing and in line with the modern science of marketing and advertising have a critical role in the development of beach sports. With appropriate management and private and public sector investments in beach sports for attracting domestic tourists, especially foreign ones, the economy of the region and even the country will be booming. Researchers' studies show that the tourism economy is developing, and developed countries are at the top of the tourist attraction list. Also, the construction and renovation of infrastructure facilities and the improvement of its welfare systems are in second place after the economic criterion.