Document Type : Research Article
PhD student in Business, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran
Assistant Professor of Business Management, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran
Assistant Professor of Business Management-Marketing, Attar Higher Education Institute, Mashhad, Iran
M.A. of Business-Marketing Management, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran
Urban tourism is considered a very important factor in the development of cities, and its wise development and management require planning based on the wishes of tourists. Tourists are also looking for in-depth experiences, more interaction with local people, and more information about local skills, traditions, and unique qualities of the visited places that make Aram tourism. The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting the development of peaceful tourism among urban tourists visiting Mashhad. This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive survey in terms of nature. The statistical population of the current research is the tourists of Mashhad city for a certain period, and due to the uncertainty of the number of the population, using the Morgan table and the two-stage cluster sampling method, the number of the statistical sample for the unlimited population, i.e. 384 people, has been selected. The findings indicate that goal-oriented theory variables (attitude, mental norms, perceived behavior control, positive emotions, and negative emotions) have a significant positive effect on tourists' willingness. Also, the characteristics of peaceful tourism (knowledge of authenticity, search for external information, and perception of authenticity) have a positive and significant effect on tourists' willingness, and finally, tourists' willingness has a positive and significant effect on their behavioral intention, which, according to the results of this hypothesis, has the greatest effect showed.
These days, due to the increasing needs of communities for the development of sustainable industry, the tourism sector is trying to create travels based on green experience in order to deal with the approach of mass tourism with negative effects. Among the resources and attractions of a destination, the culture of the local community plays a very decisive role in attracting tourists (especially slow tourists). Culture, which consists of many elements, is a collection taken from the lifestyle of the people of each region and unique to them, and this feature makes it special. A culture that local communities are forgetting about, and a slow tourist who values it, contributes to the stability of the region's culture. Therefore, it can be said that slow tourism is a way to achieve cultural sustainability and environmental protection along with deepening the tourist spirit. The focus of slow tourism is on the authentic experiences of tourists (for example, deep preoccupation with nature and untouched places) as well as the benefits that it brings to tourism destinations. In general, slow tourism is defined as slower travel, visiting and engaging in the local landscape. The slow tourist provides more opportunities for interaction and communication with local people and places on a deeper level.
The present research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive research in terms of data collection. The statistical population of the study was tourists who traveled to Mashhad in 2017. Due to the uncertainty of its number, 384 people were identified as a statistical sample based on the formula of unlimited statistical population. The sampling method in this study is a two-stage cluster. In this way, a list of hotels was selected and from among them, a number of hotels were randomly chosen that formed the first cluster and questionnaires were randomly distributed among the customers of those hotels which the customers were also the second cluster. Meng and Choi (2016) standard questionnaire was used to collect the required information and data by referring to information sources and also to receive field data.
Results and discussion
Perugini & Bagozzi (2001) goal-oriented behavior model has been recognized by many researchers as a useful framework for understanding the intentions and goals of human beings. Goal-oriented theory is a broad model based on the theory of planned behavior and the theory of logical action. This theory has two different aspects from previous models: 1) The intention to perform a behavior (which is first stimulated by desire and doing that behavior) is assumed to reflect the effects of attitudes, internal norms, behavioral control perception and emotions are predicted, 2) Predicted emotions for a particular behavior can be necessary variables in a decision-making process. In particular, goal-oriented theory identifies its precedents for a specific behavior in the theory of planned behavior that indirectly influences intention through intent. Goal-oriented theory has shown empirically that it has more descriptive power in predicting tourist behaviors and tourism destination marketing. Therefore, goal-oriented theory, which is used to predict a purposeful behavior, is an optimal framework for studying tourist behaviors. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effective factors on the development of slow tourism among urban tourists based on goal-oriented behavior theory (Case study: Mashhad).
Finally, it can be concluded that the components of goal-oriented theory (attitude, mental norms, control of perceived behavior, positive and negative emotions predicted), are a good explanation for the desire of slow tourists. The significant effect of attitude shows that a significant increase in slow tourism trends (good sense of rest, deep involvement in local culture, etc.) provides a great slow experience for the tourist. It was also found that the mental norms of tourists do not affect their desire; however, it is argued that tourists have a great desire to diversify and gain new and innovative experiences in the tourism process and visit various tourism destinations and their attractions, and the requirements of slow tourism do not conform to their mental norms. Researchers have found that even if internal attitudes and norms are completely neutral and ineffective, they may lead to behavior to some extent. As a result, it is assumed that the control of perceived behavior reinforces the individual's desire and actual behavior in goal-oriented theory, which is confirmed by the verification of the hypothesis of the effect of perceived behavior control on behavioral intention. In emotional decisions, the consumer makes decisions based on how they feel. In fact, the consumer visualizes the use of the product or service and evaluates the feeling which gets from it and emotions are one of the main causes of customer behavior and according to the confirmation of the hypotheses in this study, what the tourist feels from the city of Mashhad should be considered, what causes negative feelings in them. These can include environmental, cultural and social factors. The present study has shown the effect of slow tourism characteristics (understanding of authenticity, knowledge and behavior of mobile information search) on the behavioral desire and intention of urban tourists based on goal-oriented theory. Finally, studies suggest that inclination is a strong predictor of intent, so confirmation of this hypothesis is the result of the same theoretical foundations that inclination can explain behavioral intent.