Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
Department of Management, Faculty of Tourism Sciences, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran
Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Tourism is taking a new path and a new approach in tourism is being formed, which can be called experience-oriented tourism. Experience-oriented tourism is a new concept of tourism that expresses the new desires and attitudes of tourists regarding the concept of travel and tourism. Therefore, the current research seeks to achieve the following goals: Identifying the components and criteria that explain experience-oriented tourism in creative cultural attractions and then presenting a suitable model of experience-oriented tourism in creative cultural attractions. Therefore, by interviewing 16 people from Tehran, 12 attractions were identified as creative cultural attractions of the studied area. In the following, 20 experts in the research field were interviewed in a semi-structured way using judgmental and snowball sampling methods. In the form of qualitative method of content analysis with inductive approach and with the help of MaxQda21 software, the research data were coded. After each interview, the coding process was done and the research model was drawn with three-step coding. The findings indicate that 10 main components or categories, which are mental image before the visit, individual characteristics, expectations and motivation, creative experience, the course of memorable experiences, environment and atmosphere of experiences, satisfaction, loyalty and lasting memories, are the most essential components identified. They are creative in forming an experience-oriented tourism pattern in cultural attractions.
Tourism is taking a new path, and a new approach is being formed, which can be called experience-based tourism. Experience-based tourism is a new concept of tourism that expresses tourists' new desires and attitudes to the concept of travel and tourism. Since creative tourism has the highest semantic similarity with experience-based tourism, creative cultural attractions have been selected as the case study in this research. In the present study, creative cultural attractions are attractions that can create a creative experience. Thus, such attractions have the following characteristics: innovative (along with excitement), involve the tourist, participate in the process of visiting, create a sense of liberation, create a good feeling, inform, meaningful, original, and create memorable experiences, ultimately. Hence, attractions in Tehran were selected by observing and interviewing experts. What is proposed about this creative attraction in Tehran is that they do not have the necessary optimality in terms of the mentioned features. In other words, these attractions have not created the required environment and atmosphere to create memorable experiences in tourists' minds as they should. This is because the attitude and behavior of today's tourists have changed compared to the past, and it is not possible to have loyal tourists with the same traditional strategies of the past. This is because nowadays, tourists are more flexible, more sensitive to the environment, more adventurous, and more interested in seeking diverse and new experiences. Therefore, tourism literature and industry face a new concept and approach in tourism called experience-based tourism, which aims to breathe new life into the creative attractions of Tehran. It is also likely to change tourism destinations' marketing and planning strategies. Therefore, according to what has been said, the present study seeks to answer two research questions:
-What are the components and criteria explaining experience-based tourism in creative cultural attractions?
-What is the appropriate model of experience-based tourism in creative cultural attractions?
The present research is exploratory-applied in terms of purpose, in the category of fundamental research in terms of the audience, and qualitative in terms of the data collection method. In this study, the inductive qualitative content analysis approach was used with the help of MAXQDA21 software for analyzing the data. Semi-structured interviews were used as data collection tools. At the end of each interview, the interviewees were asked to introduce subject-aware experts to be used in subsequent interviews. Each interview was completely recorded with a device.
Results and discussion
The findings of the present study are the result of the 20 interviews' output via the inductive qualitative content analysis method so that each interview was coded after it and the next interview was conducted. In this regard, MAXQDA21 software was used and 54 codes or indexes were extracted. The mentioned codes are in the form of nine main categories or components, mental image (3 codes), personal characteristics (2 codes), motivation and expectations (5 codes), creative experience (20 codes), the atmosphere of experiences (14 codes), memorable experience process (3 codes), satisfaction (3 codes), loyalty (3 codes) and lasting memories (1 code) were included and the research model was drawn. It should be mentioned that by interviewing 16 Tehranologists and experts, 12 attractions in Tehran were identified as creative cultural attractions, which are: 1. National Museum of the Islamic Revolution and Holy Defense, 2. Dabir Ol-Molk Building, 3. Vaziri Caved Museum, 4. Tehran Book Garden, 5. Museum of Music, 6. Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, 7. Tehran Peace Museum, 8. Iran Ebrat Museum, 9. Museum of the Qasr Prison, 10. Persian Cat Museum, 11. Roya Park, 12. The collection of workshops and arts and crafts ateliers as creative cultural attractions. These attractions can potentially implement an experience-based tourism model and can be optimized in this regard.
By expressing experience-based tourism, the present study considers it an approach in tourism literature and industry that seeks to create memorable creative experiences for tourists and visitors of Tehran's creative cultural attractions. Thus opportunities will be created for the development of these attractions. The study of research background indicates that the model of experience-based tourism in the field of attractions is not creative, or in other words, the models presented in this field are not comprehensive and complete that can be used for creative cultural attractions. Therefore, the present study seeks to achieve the following objectives:
- Identifying the components and criteria explaining experience-based tourism in creative cultural attractions and then providing an appropriate model of experience-based tourism in creative cultural attractions.
Based on the research model and from the perspective of the present author, the following definition is provided for experience-based tourism:
Experience-based tourism is a dynamic process that begins before planning and preparing a trip in line with the expectations, motivations, and individual characteristics of the tourist; during the visit, it tries to form a creative experience, with the active participation of tourist; an experience that is semantic, emotional, cultural, informative, and new to the tourist.
This experience becomes memorable when the environment and atmosphere of the experiences are optimized in line with the concept of creative experience.