Document Type : Research Article
Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
A B S T R A C T
Today's world is based on competition, which includes the tourism industry and various destinations. Therefore, nowadays, tourism destinations are strongly seeking to gain a competitive advantage and are based on creativity and obtaining maximum benefit from their potential. The present study was compiled to identify and analyze the factors affecting the development of cultural tourism in Shiraz and emphasizes literary attractions, which are a subset of cultural tourism. The research method is descriptive and applied. The statistical population of the research includes tourism and urban experts. After necessary analysis, the sample size was determined to be 138 people. The data collection method is a questionnaire tool, and to check the descriptive statistics and the existing situation, SPSS software was used. Smart-PLS software was used to analyze the collected data and discover the impact of each cultural tourism component. According to the findings of structural equation modeling analysis in determining the contribution and prioritization of cultural tourism development components in order to achieve a suitable model, it showed that administrative-institutional components with a standard coefficient of 0.838, accessibility and infrastructure with a standard coefficient of 0.786, physical-environmental factor with a standard factor of 0.341, facilities component with a standard factor of 0.180, and finally, the component of resources and cultural-literary attractions with a standard factor of 0.147, respectively, have the first to fifth rank and the highest important in the development of cultural tourism in Shiraz. So, the analysis of the findings shows that the administrative-institutional component is prioritized in cultural tourism development in Shiraz. It is necessary that, in the first place, the relevant authorities review and modify the existing management structures by emphasizing its indicators, which include budget allocation, investment and participation of the private sector, pricing, human resources, and the participation of non-governmental organizations in line with take steps to realize this component
Most regions around the world compete with each other to take advantage of its benefits, especially receiving a high share of income and increasing employment due to the development of this service industry. On the other hand, tourism demand and tourists' desire for new attractions and destinations is growing. Therefore, the planners of various destinations have taken steps to respond to this demand and also continue to be present in the competitive arena in order to take advantage of all available and accessible tourism resources. Spiritual heritage is a valuable resource that, while expressing the cultural identity of countries, are inexhaustible and less vulnerable. Cultural tourism includes new windows of knowledge, development, and sustainability for societies. It includes a wide range of resources such as customs, culture, art and literature, architecture, handicrafts, music, local dances, etc. Therefore, the differences in tradition, clothing, handicrafts, food, music, art, architecture, and the like have made the cultures and communities that make up these cultures become the main focus of tourists' attention. In the meantime, as mentioned, literature is considered one of the strong sources of cultural tourism, so it sometimes becomes the main attraction in some destinations and the form of literary tourism, focusing on the space of stories, works, and places of life. The burial of poets and writers has expanded. Therefore, due to the growth of the cultural-literary tourism market and the competitiveness of the destinations, the need to pay attention and benefit from its potential has doubled. The metropolis of Shiraz, which is known as the cultural capital of Iran, has the potential to become one of the hubs of cultural-literary tourism, not only in the country but also internationally, with its rich cultural and literary attractions. However, it mostly relies on tourists' visits to cultural sites such as the tombs of literary poets, which faces many challenges in the booming days of tourism. Therefore, the main goal of the current research is to identify the important components of cultural tourism in the first place and then to investigate and analyze the impact of each component in order to determine the priority in cultural tourism development plans of Shiraz metropolis. In this regard, the main research questions are:
- What are the components of cultural tourism?
- What is the impact and priority of each component in the development of cultural tourism in Shiraz metropolis?
This study is considered applied research in terms of classification based on the purpose. The questionnaire tool collected the required information through the library and field method. In this way, theoretical concepts were explained in order to clarify the issue, and then, for a more coherent and efficient discussion and investigation of the region, the components of cultural tourism (five components) were determined according to the views of the experts. The statistical community of the research includes tourism and urban experts. In order to determine the sample size, Sample Power software was used, and the number of 138 people was determined as the sample size.
Results and discussion
According to the analysis and findings from structural equation modeling analysis in determining the contribution and prioritization of cultural tourism development components in order to achieve a suitable model, it showed that the administrative-institutional components with a standard coefficient of 0.838, access and infrastructure with a standard coefficient of 0.786, physical-environment with a standard coefficient of 0.341, facilities component with a standard coefficient of 0.180, and finally, the component of resources and cultural-literary attractions with a standard coefficient of 0.147, respectively, have a rank first to fifth and the most important in the development of cultural tourism in Shiraz metropolis.
Currently, cultural tourism, focusing on historical and cultural sites, symbols, nostalgic values, literature and literary places, reconstruction of the old world, etc., is one of the branches of tourism that is used to compete, gain economic benefits, create employment, the preservation of historical contexts and, as a result, cultural identity has been given a lot of attention. Therefore, in such an arena, they are the winning destinations that, by identifying and analyzing their existing situation in advance, take steps towards the realization of cultural tourism, which is one of the attractive branches in tourism and sustainable development of urban communities. According to the discussed topics, it can be said that in order to develop cultural tourism in Shiraz metropolis, which is one of the important tourism hubs of the country, it should be based on the implementation and application of the components of cultural tourism development capacity in the order of priority, the most important of which is institutional-management and access and infrastructures were to be taken by focusing on the indicators of each component.
There is no funding support.
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.