Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
A B S T R A C T
With the emergence of the creative tourism paradigm, the knowledge-raising tourism system invites tourists to visit and interact with societies' living and unique cultures instead of just visiting tangible assets in museums and ancient works. In this paradigm, tourists engage all their five senses in creating their unique experience and upgrade their relationship with the local people from the level of buyer and seller to the relationship of student and teacher. In this research, the role of cultural components in the development of creative tourism of the city in the historical texture of the city and, among this, the historical bazaar of Tabriz city should be investigated. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The statistical population of this research included tourists entering Tabriz city in 2021, and the sample size was estimated to be 384 people using Cochran's formula. The validity of the research tool was calculated using the confirmatory factor analysis model, and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. Data analysis was done using SPSS and AMOS software with descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. The findings showed that cultural components, i.e., distance from low power, development of handicrafts and cultural relations, collectivism, and avoidance of uncertainty, have a positive and significant effect on the development of urban creative tourism. Among the identified components, the uncertainty avoidance component, with a path coefficient of 0.52, had the greatest impact on the development of urban creative tourism
The city of Tabriz is significant economically and politically due to its special geographical and natural conditions. Tabriz has been chosen as the world city of handicrafts in the field of carpet weaving and is considered the origin of one of the painting schools of Iran. In the meantime, the tourism industry plays an important role in the economic dynamics of this city; Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to tourism as the main policy of urban development. The use of creative tourism dimensions in all urban areas and among the historical contexts of Tabriz city can be a perfect lever for promoting this city in global dimensions. It can also be considered a proper urban management and planning tool. Besides preserving the city's culture, traditions, and customs (the only value and asset of the city), it is also effective in improving its residents' physical and mental health. With the understanding of the mentioned cases, the main problem of this research is whether cultural components affect the development of creative urban tourism in the historical contexts of the city.
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. A questionnaire was used to collect information. The questionnaire uses a five-point Likert scale from completely agree to disagree. The statistical population of this research included incoming tourists to Tabriz city; due to the lack of accurate information about the number of incoming tourists in 2021, Cochran's formula was used to determine the number of the statistical sample, and the sample size obtained was equal to 384 people. In this research, a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect research data. The reliability of the questionnaire was measured by calculating Cronbach's alpha and calculating the combined reliability coefficient (CR), and it was confirmed. This research exerted SPSS and AMOS software to analyze the research data.
Results and discussion
Concerning the effect of the distance component on power, the path coefficient (0.30) has been estimated so that the value of the T statistic obtained is equal to 5.78 and is more than 1.96. Therefore, the distance from the power of the cultural component has a positive and significant effect on the development of creative urban tourism in the studied area. In relation to the impact of handicraft development components and cultural exchanges on the development of urban creative tourism, the path coefficient (0.37) has been estimated. Also, in such a way that the value of the T statistic obtained is equal to 3.98 and is higher than 1.96, it can be said that cultural exchanges and the development of handicrafts of the cultural component have a positive and significant effect on the development of urban creative tourism in the studied area. Concerning the impact of the component of collectivism on the development of urban creative tourism, the path coefficient (0.33) has been estimated. In such a way, the value of the obtained T statistic is equal to 7.67 and is more than 1.96; therefore, it can be said that the collectivism of the cultural component has a positive and significant effect on the development of creative urban tourism in the studied area.
In relation to the impact of the uncertainty avoidance component on the development of urban creative tourism, the path coefficient (0.52) has been estimated. Also, in such a way that the value of the T statistic obtained is equal to 7.55 and is more than 1.96; it can be said that avoiding the uncertainty of the cultural component has a positive and significant effect on the development of creative urban tourism in the studied area.
The findings of this research showed that cultural components have a positive and significant impact on the development of creative urban tourism. Based on this finding, it can be said that in the planning and managing of tourism development, including urban creative tourism, attention to cultural factors and components has an important place, and it should be in the management of attractions, especially in coordinating it with the destination. Tangible and intangible cultural aspects should be considered, and measures should be taken to manage the cultural exchanges between the destination and guests. The results of the related component have made the position of the distance component more prominent than the low power of cultural factors in the development of urban creative tourism. According to the research results, the low power distance component in tourism destinations, such as the historical context of Tabriz, leads to the development of tourism in tourist cities. In destinations where the distance from power is common, the residents feel more responsible for the tourism development plans and consider themselves obliged to ask and question the officials related to them.
Also, based on the findings related to the collectivism component of cultural factors, it can be said that with the spread of collectivism among residents in tourism cities, it experiences more development. Based on this, in destinations with a collectivist culture, the residents, understanding the positive results of the development of urban creative tourism, have shown a positive approach to the public interests of the city, so they have provided more support for the development plans of creative urban tourism and in the implementation of this plan They participate. In relation to the impact of handicrafts and cultural exchanges that had a positive effect on the development of creative tourism, it can be said that, in fact, the presentation of handicrafts in the form of tourism development is one of the attractions that contain tangible and intangible meanings with the participation of the community of artists and craftsmen. The destinations provide the possibility of training, making, and buying handicrafts for incoming tourists.
There is no funding support.
The authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
The Authors declared no conflict of interest.
The authors appreciate to all the scientific consultants of this paper.