Document Type : Research Article
Department of Management, Faculty of Social Sciences and Economic, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
A B S T R A C T
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of value co-creation through tourists' intention to revisit the development of creative tourism based on the theory of service dominance and social exchange theory. The present research is based on the applied purpose, and in terms of research design, it is a quantitative, descriptive-analytical method. The data collection tool is a questionnaire, and the statistical population of the study is tourists visiting and staying in ecolodge in Hormozgan province. Because the population is over 100,000, 384 samples were selected, according to Morgan and Krejcie. Structural equation modeling was exerted to test the hypotheses, and analyses were performed using SPSS and Warp PLS software. The results showed that value co-creation has a positive and significant effect on the intention of tourists to revisit and the development of creative tourism. Value co-creation with the criteria of escapism, being memorable, learning has a positive and meaningful effect on the intention of tourists to revisit with the criteria of satisfaction and happiness, and all these factors also have a positive and meaningful effect on creative tourism
The concept of co-creation is at the core of the logic of service dominance(SD), which states that services should be placed at the center of economic exchanges instead of products, and then the customer should be the creator of value and interact with service providers or other customers. In eco-tourism accommodations, through layout, equipment, local culture and customs, handicrafts, food, etc., the possibility of co-creating value for tourists can be provided, which can play an essential role in their return visits. Also, because the interactions of the tourism industry are two-way and exchange-type, the theory of social exchange is also used in this research. On the other hand, the needs and demands of tourists have changed in this era, and they no longer want to be just spectators and listeners; they want to play a role in creating the experience themselves. Creative tourism is a suitable solution to address this need. Mohammadi et al. (2021), according to the classification of studies in the field of value co-creation, state that the studies conducted in value co-creation have paid less attention to the infrastructures and obstacles to the implementation of co-creation. "Creative tourism," with the slogan "Less museums, more fields," focuses on conducting experimental activities and deeper interaction with the real cultural life in the host society. Therefore, we should look for a solution that will make tourists, if they visit the accommodation and destination once, be eager to come back for the second, third, and many times, and not repeat it for them, and even recommend it to others, so that creative tourism can be developed accordingly. In this regard, a value co-creation solution is proposed as suitable, attractive, practical, and new. Thus, the current research aims to investigate the effect of co-creation of value on the intention of tourists to visit again and the development of creative tourism based on the service superiority theory and the social exchange theory. There have been many researches about value co-creation in the tourism industry, such as hotels and destinations, etc., which are in theoretical foundations, but by examining them, this research gap is revealed, which is comprehensively about the co-creation relationship. Value in all three stages before, during, and after the trip, considering important factors such as separation from reality, learning and memorable that come from co-creation, and the intention to revisit, which includes components such as happiness. Moreover, satisfaction and the development of creative tourism that meets the needs of today's tourists, based on the logic of service superiority and social exchange theory, have not been researched. Therefore, the outstanding innovation of the present research is this aspect, and it has been done according to the accurate and current needs of tourists, the new trend of formation, and the need to develop creative tourism and consider the interests of all stakeholders.
The current research is based on practical purpose, and in terms of research design, it is quantitative and descriptive-analytical. The tool for data collection is a questionnaire and the statistical population of tourists visiting and staying in Hormozgan ecotourism resorts. Since the population is over 100,000, according to Morgan and Krejcie, 384 samples were selected. Structural equation modeling was exerted to test the hypotheses, and analyses were performed using SPSS and Warp PLS software.
Results and discussion
The results showed that the co-creation of value through tourists' intention to visit again has a positive and significant effect on the development of creative tourism. Co-creation of value with the criteria of distance from reality, being memorable, and learning has a positive and meaningful effect on the intention to visit again with the criteria of satisfaction and happiness, and all these factors also have a positive and meaningful effect on creative tourism.
The present study investigates the effect of co-creation of value with the mediating role of tourists' intention to visit again on creative tourism. The first hypothesis examined the effect of value co-creation on tourists' intention to visit again, which was confirmed. In the second hypothesis, the effect of tourists' intention to visit again on the development of creative tourism was investigated, and this hypothesis was also confirmed. According to the role of media and social networks, tourists should participate in three stages before, during, and after the trip. The development of a website based on an intelligent approach, with augmented reality, interactive maps, and game services, is a valid tool for the participation of tourists. In the south of Iran, each has own native and local cultures; in Bandar Kong and Mehrgan village, in the discussion of planting and harvesting and using the products of the groves, for example, separating palm cheese, etc., tourists and most of the men can be involved. Also, through the participation of tourists in artistic and cultural activities such as experiencing the role of henna and performing it by tourists, especially women, experiencing making local handicrafts for women, participating and doing local cooking activities for more women, and even helping the service providers in the experience of buying and preparing raw materials for cooking by both women and men, participating in ceremonies such as Zarif in Bandar Kong, Izwa ceremony and such things for both women and men can amount to increase co-creation of value. Such value co-creating activities make tourists happy, learn and get away from reality and escape from everyday life, make the trip memorable and satisfying, and can influence the intention to revisit. Residences can provide a space where even the type of arrangement of the equipment, the physical space, the decorations, and the type of clothes of the presenters create value and cause distance from reality, learning, being memorable and satisfaction, the happiness of tourists and make them eager to revisit.
There is no funding support.
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.