Document Type : Research Article
Department of Tourism, Faculty of Geography Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Tourism, Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism, Tehran, Iran
A B S T R A C T
Literary tourism is one of the types of cultural tourism, the main purpose of which is to get to know the places related to the lives of writers, poets, artists and their works. Iran, having famous poets and writers, has suitable conditions for the development of literary tourism. In the meantime, Tehran has always been the focus of poets and writers of our country due to its political position and the presence of cultural and artistic centers. Therefore, it has great potential to create literary tourism. The analysis of literary tourism capacities is done at three levels: individual, organizational and environmental. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze "environmental capacities" in the development of literary tourism in Tehran. The research method in carrying out this research is descriptive-analytical with practical purpose. In order to collect information, documentary and survey methods have been used. The statistical population of survey studies included two groups of literary tourists and the local community. The research findings showed that "types of literary tourism" are the most effective variable of environmental capacity in the development of literary tourism in Tehran. After that, "infrastructure" is the second priority. "Literary places" are also in the third category, less important than the two mentioned cases. The research results show that Tehran has a suitable environmental capacity for the creation and development of literary tourism, and this capacity can be the grounds for the development of tourism in Tehran
Cities always attract the attention of many tourists in terms of having a different environment and many tourist attractions. Cities have many recreational, commercial, historical and cultural centers. The cultural opportunities of cities play an essential role in attracting tourists. Today, cities are generators, inheritors and guardians of the culture of societies. Urban tourism is considered one of the types of cultural tourism, and cities are one of the most important centers of production, supply and consumption of cultural and artistic products. In addition, the diversity of cultural spaces in cities, such as museums, exhibitions, cinemas, theaters, libraries and other artistic and cultural spaces, makes many tourists come to the city to see these spaces and take advantage of their facilities. To develop tourism, its capacities must be examined from different aspects. Thus, "community capacity building" is recognized as an important tourism development strategy. Also, the success of tourism development requires the understanding of all stakeholders to invest in Jalma's capacities and the tourism industry. Without community capacity building, tourism development processes cannot be implemented. Therefore, capacity building parallels community development and is a common feature. Capacity development is a relatively new term that has become popular since the 1980s and gained prominence in the 1990s. Despite its novelty, as a complement to other ideas, it has influenced development thinking and continues to play an important role. These concepts include institutionalization, institutional development, human resource development, management and implementation of and improvement of institutional development. UNDP (2009) introduces capacity in three levels as environmental (an enabling environment), organizational (within organizations) and individual (within individuals). "Elements that are at the environmental level include formal institutions (laws, policies, rulings, membership regulations, etc.), informal institutions (customs, culture, norms, etc.), social capital and social infrastructure, and the capacities of individuals and Organizations. “Iran has a high potential for developing literary tourism by having famous poets and writers. Usually, compared to other urban destinations, capital cities have distinct environmental characteristics that distinguish them from other cities. Tehran is one of the cities that has always been the focus of the poets and writers of our country due to its political position and the presence of cultural-artistic centers. So, there are many houses of poets and writers in this city, which has been the place of residence and commuting of literary greats for many years. Therefore, this research examines environmental capacities in the development of literary tourism in Tehran.
The research is practical in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of nature. Also, in terms of the method of analysis, it has been done quantitatively with the library method and field studies (questionnaire). In order to assess the validity of the data, Cronbach's alpha test was used, and the validity of the questionnaire was high and valid.
Results and discussion
The Friedman test was used to compare the importance of these components. According to the statistical calculations, "types of literary tourism," with an average rank of 2.42, is the most effective variable of environmental capacity in the development of literary tourism in Tehran, followed by "infrastructure," with an average rank of 2.28 is in second place. "Literary places" is in the third place with an average rank of 1.30 and is less important than the two mentioned cases. The role of "environmental capacities" in the development of literary tourism in the eyes of the local community includes, respectively, "literary museums," "book cafes," and also "the birthplace and life of poets or writers." To compare the importance of these variables with the Friedman test showed that "Book Cafe," with an average rank of 2.26, is the most effective environmental capacity variable in the development of literary tourism in Tehran, followed by "place of birth and life of poets or writers" with an average rank of 1.91 is in the second degree of priority. "Literary museums" are in the third place with an average rank of 1.84 and are less important than the two mentioned above. The comparison of the importance of three capacities in the development of literary tourism from the point of view of two groups of tourists and the local community shows that both groups consider "organizational capacities" as the most effective factor in the development of literary tourism in Tehran.
The development of tourism capacities can play an important role in using different aspects of literary tourism. Capacity development also helps to solve or change problems and improve performance. The results show that "environmental capacities" are the most effective factor in the development of literary tourism in Tehran. Among the components of environmental capacity, "types of literary tourism" is the most effective variable of environmental capacity in the development of literary tourism in Tehran. Also, from the local community’s point of view, "Book Cafe" is the most effective variable of environmental capacity in the development of literary tourism in Tehran. From the tourists' point of view, in addition to environmental capacities, it is necessary to pay attention to "organizational capacities" for the development of Tehran's literary tourism.
There is no funding support.
The authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
The Authors declared no conflict of interest.
The authors appreciate to all the scientific consultants of this paper.