Document Type : Research Article
Department of Tourism management, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
A B S T R A C T
The boom in manufacturing and sales of handicrafts depends on the provision of requirements that are directly linked to the development of cultural heritage tourism. Aside from the special status of handicrafts in the region's unique cultural industries, this industry plays a vital role in promoting local businesses and employment in the tourism industry. Today, many countries are looking for specialty and high-quality packaging to sell handicrafts, in addition to marketing their products that lead to successful tourist satisfaction. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that it can take a major step in the cultural heritage tourism development by examining the current supply and demand of handicrafts in a region and the expected conditions of tourists to buy handicrafts. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the gap between the current and desirable status of manufacturing and sales of handicrafts with the heritage tourism approach in Amol county. Current research is descriptive-analytic and is based on documentary and field studies. Field studies of the research consist of designing and distributing questionnaires in Amol County. These questionnaires were filled up by 390 tourists that visited from Amol handicrafts. SPSS software was used to process the data, and based on the nature of the data and research objective, paired T-tests and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze the data. Significance level and averages calculated in all cases showed a meaningful gap between expectations and the current status of Amol county’s handicrafts market. Likewise, the most meaningful gap from tourists’ perspective exists in the cultural effectiveness within variables such as attractiveness, authenticity, identity, quality, creativity, artistic style, and antiquity. Other results of the research show a gap between internal variables components such as supply quality, way of presentation, and degree of cultural effectiveness, transportation competence and royalty extent in handicrafts sales markets of Amol County
Handicrafts are a part of cultural products that reflect the traditional lifestyle of human societies. Getting to know the traditional life style and the cultural identity of communities is one of the most important attractions in the field of heritage tourism, and these attractions can be presented in the best way through handicrafts and cultural products. Therefore, handicrafts are known as cultural industries in the field of tourism. Regardless of the cultural burden of handicrafts, this industry is considered one of the economic capacities in the development of tourism. The economic benefits of tourism is one of the most important goals of the development of this industry, and the prosperity of the handicrafts market plays an important role in fulfilling this goal. The result of the interaction between handicrafts and the tourism industry is small-scale and private entrepreneurship. Mazandaran; It is the tourism hub of Iran and one of the richest areas for the production and sale of handicrafts, and the city of Amol has created the best possibility for the sale of handicraft products due to its central and transiting location. Undoubtedly, by creating platforms for the sale of handicraft products, in accordance with the position of Mazandaran in the field of tourism in Iran and the effective management of existing resources, it is possible to create a huge transformation in the economy of the residents of its cities, including the city of Amol. The main goal of the current research is to analyze the state of handicrafts market with the approach of heritage tourism in Amol city.
The current research is applied in terms of purpose and based on descriptive-analytical nature. The data of this has been collected by documentary and field method and interpreted by descriptive-analytical method. The opinions of 390 tourists in the form of a questionnaire consisting of 5 criteria of the quality of supply, the way of presentation, the degree of cultural influence, the ability to transport and the degree of loyalty of tourists to revisit the destination, were classified and collected in the form of a questionnaire and It was processed using SPSS statistical software. Also, to understand the status of the gap between two situations, Wilcoxon's rank difference tests and paired t-parametric test were used, and Friedman's test was used to rank variables.
Results and discussion
There is a significant difference between the current and desired situation of the supply of cultural and handicraft products from the point of view of tourists. The most basic reason for this situation is the lack of proper understanding of the marketing of handicraft products and the quality of its stores. Misunderstanding and misrecognition of the situation of tourists during the trip, especially in the final stages of the trip, which is the season for buying souvenirs and gifts, is also mentioned as another reason for the situation. In this sense, at the end of the trip, tourists tend to transfer some of the culture of the destination to the origin by buying cultural products that are a sign of the destination and its culture. In this situation, the quality of access, variety, originality, transportability and many other components are very important. On the other hand, Amol Shahri Tratisi is the gateway to the coastal cities and one of the exit axes for tourists from the coastal areas to Tehran and southern Iran. This characteristic of Amol city has created sensitivities for it. This means that the tourists passing through this city expect to have easy access to souvenirs and handicrafts of the region in this terminal. To the mentioned factors, travel fatigue and the remaining economic power of tourists should be added, which have a significant effect on purchasing motives. Therefore, it is expected that the state of handicraft stores in Amol will meet all the needs of diverse customers in terms of shape, color, size, transportability, packaging, etc. But Amol's performance is not evaluated to meet the mentioned needs.
From the point of view of tourists, the criterion of cultural influence with the components of attractiveness, originality, identity, quality, creativity, artistic style and age has the biggest gap between the expectations of tourists and the current situation. The field evidence also shows that in these handicrafts supply centers, products are seen which are generally imported and without specific identity and can be found everywhere, but the supply of local handicrafts in them is very limited. it's limited. In fact, it can be said that the main damage of this area is the neglect of authenticity and identity as the fundamental factor of tourists' desire to buy handicrafts. Basically, it is cultural identity and originality hidden in handicrafts and cultural products, which creates the motivation to devote time to visit the stores and the subsequent increase in purchase.
The correct understanding of the terminal position of Amel city, the nature of handicrafts as cultural products, the willingness of tourists to buy cultural products as gifts are among the effective factors in creating a gap between the current situation and Desirable is the craft market. In connection with the challenges facing the growth and development of handicrafts in compliance with the quantitative goals of tourism in destinations such as Amel city, which is on the route of tourists to specific tourism destinations based on nature, it can be acknowledged that not having a specific strategy at the level In the field of handicrafts marketing, the province is weak in identifying local producers and organizing them and weak in supporting the activists of this sector as the most important reasons for the weak role of this sector in generating employment and earning income from the tourism sector, and in the following We can raise the weakness of tourism infrastructure such as planning for location and marketing problem.
There is no funding support.
The authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
The Authors declared no conflict of interest.
The authors appreciate to all the scientific consultants of this paper.