Document Type : Article extracted From phd dissertation
PhD Student in Urban Planning, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
- Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
The development of tourism with a heritage approach is essential in the tourism planning process in order to introduce the cultural values of ethnic groups and nations, help preserve historical-cultural attractions, cultural branding, and preservation of local and spatial identity. In this regard, it is necessary to know the cultural and historical attractions and understand their impact, especially in tourism development. However, it should be noted that in our country, tourism, despite its very high potential, has not been considered scientifically and in principle. And it is mainly in the form of leisure, and a smaller percentage of tourists go to places with cultural and historical attractions. There are many historical and cultural attractions in different parts of the country, including the historical contexts of Tehran's 12th district, which can be effective in the development of tourism with a cultural-historical nature. In which tourists focus on enjoying the cultural-historical attractions, learning from the past, realizing the depth of art and culture, pride in the roots of religious identity combined with pride, pride, impression and sadness. This research is to answer the questions as follow:
-What is the relationship between the vitality of urban space and urban heritage tourism in the historical sites of Tehran?
-What is the ranking of vitality criteria in the historical sites of the study area in terms of importance?
The present study is in the category of applied-developmental research and from the point of view of certainty, it is in the category of quantitative research. The method of collecting information was based on common library and field methods. The statistical population of the people selected as the study population of this study includes two groups:
Tourists who have visited or been presented in historical sites at least once. (Mehrabanmanesh, Pahlavan Razaz, Dabir al-Molk, Kazemi), and
Specialists in the field of urban planning, architecture, restoration and tourism who are fully acquainted with the study areas.
The group of specialists has been selected from among the people working in the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization of Tehran Province and the Municipality of District 12 of Tehran. The size of the statistical sample studied using Cochran's formula for tourists and professionals is equal to 384 and 36 people, respectively. In order to ensure the validity of the measurement tool, the content validity method was used and approved. To evaluate the validity of the questionnaire questions, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used, the value for the statistical population of tourists and professionals is 0.976 and 0.977, respectively, which these figures indicate the optimal reliability of the questionnaires. After completing the questionnaires based on the five-point Likert scale by the statistical community, the results were sorted, classified, and coded and to perform inferential tests, they entered the software environment of SPSS statistical analysis software.
Results and discussion
The results of data analysis show that from the perspective of tourists and experts in this study, there is a direct (because the correlation coefficients are positive) and significant (because significant values are less than 0.05) relationship between vitality and urban tourism in historical sites of Tehran (4 historical houses studied). In addition, the intensity of this relationship is strong because the correlation coefficients are more significant than 0.7 and are close to 1. As a result, with the improvement of vitality standards in these historical places, tourism in these places will be further developed. In other words, in order to strengthen and develop tourism in these historical places and houses, it is necessary to enhance and improve the standards of vitality.
Findings from the ranking showed that each of the 4 historical sites of Mehrabanmanesh, Pahlavan Razaz, Dabir-ol-Molk and Kazemi has been studied from the perspective of the target community; In other words, it has been determined which historical site is in a better position than the others in relation to each factor. According to experts, the status of each factor in each of the historical buildings is different, except for the factor of beauty and visual appeal. Because the significant value for this factor is equal to 0.05, but for other factors, this value is less than 0.05. This is why the ranking of historic buildings has not been done according to this factor, because based on experts, these four places are on the same level in terms of beauty and visual attraction and are not much different from each other. From the tourists' point of view, the status of each factor in each of the historical houses is different because the significant value for each factor is less than 0.05.
The study of inferential statistics indicates that the impact of vitality variables on the promotion of heritage tourism in the four selected areas is not equal from the perspective of the community of professionals and tourists. Thus, according to experts, the variables of visual diversity, beauty, and user diversity have the highest effectiveness, and the factors of safety facilities, access quality, and environmental comfort have the least impact. At the same time, from the tourists' point of view, the variables of beauty and visual attractiveness have the most, and the criteria of attendance, feeling of security, and physical safety have the least impact. In order to study the type and extent of the relationship between vitality and urban tourism from the perspective of the statistical community, it was found that there is a direct and significant relationship between the studied variables in four historic houses, so that by improving vitality criteria in these places, tourism also develops.