Document Type : Research Article
Assistant Professor of Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
urbanism,art and architecture,persian gulf,bushehr,iran
All countries worldwide are developing the tourism industry because it benefits other sectors such as retail, transportation, and construction. Hence, countries engage in countless advertising and marketing activities to attract more tourists and improve their satisfaction. If a destination can identify and meet the needs and wants of tourists, these tourists are likely to make frequent visits and spread positive publicity. An issue that ultimately leads to more tourists spending money at the destination. The study of tourism in coastal cities is essential because travelers have long considered these areas due to their unique climatic and social conditions. According to the World Bank, coastal and maritime tourism will be the most significant value-added part of the ocean economy by 2030. Bushehr is one of the cities that, despite its potential and existing capabilities, has not been able to achieve its main position in the field of tourism. The city, due to lack of proper tourism infrastructure, relative deprivation of the city, pollution and poor health, lack of guidance and encouragement of the private sector to invest, etc., has failed in the development of tourism, despite its pristine views of the azure shores of the Persian Gulf, pleasant coastal parks, piers, various museums, handicrafts and local music, lush groves, markets, valuable historical texture, beautiful historic mansions and places Religious and historical. Meanwhile, the development of tourism in Bushehr can provide new capacities for economic activities, investment, and job creation. And due to the favorable climatic conditions, especially in autumn and winter, and beautiful coastal scenery to become a tourism hub in the country's south. In this research, an attempt has been made to answer the following two questions:
-What are the factors that satisfy tourists in coastal cities?
- What are the strategies to improve the tourism capacity of the coastal city of Bushehr?
In the present study, first, by reviewing the authoritative global texts, the indicators of tourist satisfaction [with emphasis on coastal cities] have been extracted. In order to convert the table of indicators into a questionnaire, the reliability was confirmed according to the Cronbach's alpha test value of 0.946, and the validity of the questions was checked through interviews with experts. Then, through a questionnaire survey, the views of Iranian tourists on the status of tourism indicators in the city of Bushehr were obtained. In this regard, considering p = q = 0.5 and an error of 0.07, the sample size with Cochran's formula was 196 people, which was finally considered to increase the study's accuracy by 200. The questionnaires were distributed in the fall of 2020 among tourists who visited the beaches of Bushehr. After completing the questionnaires, the following data were entered into SPSS software and analyzed using the confirmatory factor analysis model. The model's output categorizes and summarizes the studied indicators into several homogeneous factors. Also, to determine the weight of factors in promoting the tourism situation in Bushehr, the relationship between factors and tourists' overall satisfaction has been measured using a linear multivariate regression model.
Result and discussion
After extracting the information from the questionnaires and entering them into SPSS software, they were evaluated using the confirmatory factor analysis model and linear multivariate regression analysis model. The numerical value of the KMO test in this study was 0.889, which means that the existing correlation between the data will be suitable for data analysis. Bartlett test value is also acceptable (significance level, Sig =0.000). Cronbach's alpha value is more than 0.7, which confirms the reliability of the questionnaire. Findings show that the 40 indicators studied in the present study are classified into nine factors. Also, based on the regression analysis findings, the study of the relationship between these nine factors and tourist satisfaction shows that there is not a sufficient level of significance for the three factors. The other six factors include "urban environment pleasantness," "accommodation and nutrition services," "access to attractions," "attraction diversity," "attractiveness of the urban environment," and "pleasant experience of being in the city," respectively, have the most impact on the level of satisfaction of tourists.
Based on tourists' opinions about the city of Bushehr, the highest satisfaction was with the factors of accommodation services, nutrition, and air conditioning of the city environment. In contrast, the factors of access to attractions and variety of attractions were associated with the least satisfaction. Also, among the 40 indicators studied, the indicators of "availability and quality of health services in the city and tourist places," "the possibility of observing the diversity of aquatic species, marine corals, etc. for tourists," and "Water recreation facilities and services for women and children" gained the least level of satisfaction from the tourists' point of view. In contrast to the indicators of "how people are treated and hospitable," "level of security and safety for tourists, especially women and children," and "ease of access to the beach and the water's edge" were the most satisfied. Accordingly, the following strategies can be considered as priorities for improving the tourism capacity of Bushehr:
- Benefiting from the capacity of the sea and aquatic animals in creating attractive and unique tourist centers;
- Strengthen coastal landscapes and install creative elements on the beach;
- Defining tourism sidewalks with the focus on connecting historic buildings and tourism centers within the urban context;
-Improving the quality of night entertainment spaces due to Bushehr's hot and humid climate.