Document Type : Research Article
Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Urban Planning and Art, Urmia University.
The citizens of modern cities, while they need a lot of time and speed management, due to the accumulation of population, and therefore the car and traffic jams, face problems in meeting these needs; The aggregation of commercial and service centers in cities, as well as their lack of efficient transportation system (not necessarily up-to-date vehicles), can be one of the main reasons for wasting time and slowing down access; In addition, the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic showed how concentration, aggregation, and accumulation could exacerbate the epidemic and increase the risk of infection; In such a situation, the need for easy access and more efficient placement of uses and functions becomes more and more apparent, and this is the goal that the theory of 15 -minute cities or neighborhoods pursues. Following the abovementioned cases, when we look at the centers of accumulation and aggregation of cities, it turns out that in many of them, this is the central and historical core of the city that bears the burden of hosting the masses of citizens, despite all its potential attractions and high semantic load which is inevitably fragile: areas of cities that have a memory of pedestrian, self-sufficient neighborhoods; From gathering the above cases together, we can find a way by which,
The present study is an applied one and its method is descriptive-analytical based on collecting library and survey information. First, by using various sources in the field of research, the necessary information was collected, and then a questionnaire and interview were used to collect information from the statistical community. Data collection tools are the questionnaire, survey method, library and documentary studies, and field observations. The statistical population of the historical context of Urmia city has been selected using a simple random sampling method from the whole community and using the Cochran model. According to the purpose of the study, first, the effective indicators and components in this issue in various economic, social, and physical dimensions were collected that 14 criteria related to the 15-minute city or neighborhood related to these dimensions have been identified from the theoretical foundations of the research. In order to analyze the data, the type of effective factors was determined and graded using confirmatory factor analysis.
Results and discussion
During the research, the service, historical, and travel attraction spots of the historical core of Urmia were identified and then their impact on the creation of a 15-minute city in economic, physical, and social dimensions was measured using confirmatory factor analysis. The findings after the study are as follows: In the economic dimension of 9 items - local economy, historical context capabilities (urban branding), the multiplicity of jobs, multiplicity of informal occupations, access to commercial service centers, transportation, trade prosperity, accommodation facilities, medical facilities - were examined as effective variables in the category of tourism and the 15-minute city; Based on this, the results show that the prosperity of trade within the historical context of Urmia, being in the first place, has the greatest impact on the prosperity of tourism, the impact of informal and non-crime jobs is in the second rank, transportation items and the local economy are in the 3rd and 4th ranks, the level of access to service-commercial centers, accommodation and medical facilities and the ability in city branding is in the next ranks. In the physical dimension, the readability of the environment in the historical context of Urmia city and 22 Bahman school is the most effective physical factor in the prosperity of tourism in the context, Ayalat Square and surrounding buildings, Imam Street, Sardar Mosque, Lotfali Khan Mosque, urban furniture, Minaret Mosque and Hedayat School, Greenspace, Khayyam Street, bazaar complex and public spaces are all items that can play an effective role in the prosperity of tourism in the historical context of Urmia. In the social dimension, making memories is in the first place with the highest score, the presence of the Arts Department in historical context is in the second rank, the high level of the sense of freedom in the historical context is in the third rank, the presence of street musicians is in the fourth rank, the presence of cinema in the context is the fifth, the sense of security in the context is the sixth, the sense of cooperation in the context is the seventh, the level of having an identity is the eighth, the degree of face-to-face communication is the ninth, the degree of the sense of belonging is the tenth and the prevalence of the street food is in the eleventh rank.
The historical context of Urmia, because of its tourism potentials and its historical background in meeting the needs of citizens in a short time, has the ability to be an effective part of the city of Urmia as a tourist area and at the same time blossom for a 15-minute one; The historical context of Urmia can be introduced as a region in itself and related to the surrounding area, because the variety of uses - especially compatible uses - has caused the daily, weekly and even longer-term needs of residents easily and simply resolve in a short time; In addition to having an organic network of pedestrian crossings, this area also has a relatively efficient public transportation network, so the mentioned context from this perspective also has a high potential in terms of reducing transportation time and at the same time increasing the tourism; The historical physical elements of the index in the area all have a relative potential in the field of tourism and by increasing their potential in the 15-minute neighborhood, the inherent role of the mentioned elements in the stated matter can be used; From the point of view of social dimensions, it can be said that the high level of remembrance in the current original context, if the15-minute city policies are implemented in it, can increase its originality by driving out crowds and chaos, and inspire the residents and consequently the tourists.